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Quantitative CT analysis for bronchiolitis obliterans in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents-comparison with controls and lung function data.

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2020 Mar 14

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<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To compare quantitative chest CT parameters in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents with and without bronchiolitis obliterans compared with HIV-uninfected controls and their association with lung function measurements.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>Seventy-eight (41 girls) HIV-infected adolescents with a mean age of 13.8 ± 1.65&nbsp;years and abnormal pulmonary function tests in the prospective Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort underwent contrast-enhanced chest CT on inspiration and expiration. Sixteen age-, sex-, and height-matched non-infected controls were identified retrospectively. Fifty-one HIV-infected adolescents (28 girls) displayed mosaic attenuation on expiration suggesting bronchiolitis obliterans. Pulmonary function tests were collected. The following parameters were obtained: low- and high-attenuation areas, mean lung density, kurtosis, skewness, ventilation heterogeneity, lung mass, and volume.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>HIV-infected adolescents showed a significantly higher mean lung density, ventilation heterogeneity, mass, and high- and low-attenuation areas compared with non-infected individuals. Kurtosis and skewness were significantly lower as well. HIV-infected adolescents with bronchiolitis obliterans had a significantly lower kurtosis and skewness compared with those without bronchiolitis obliterans. Lung mass and volume showed the strongest correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1&nbsp;s (FEV), forced vital capacity (FVC), and alveolar volume. Low-attenuation areas below -&nbsp;950&nbsp;HU and ventilation heterogeneity showed the strongest correlation with FEV/FVC (range, - 0.51 to - 0.34) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (range, - 0.50 to - 0.35).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Quantitative chest CT on inspiration is a feasible technique to differentiate perinatally HIV-infected adolescents with and without bronchiolitis obliterans. Quantitative CT parameters correlate with spirometric measurements of small-airway disease.</p>

<p><strong>KEY POINTS: </strong>• Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents showed a more heterogeneous attenuation of the lung parenchyma with a higher percentage of low- and high-attenuation areas compared with non-infected patients. • Kurtosis and skewness are able to differentiate between HIV-infected adolescents with and without bronchiolitis obliterans using an inspiratory chest CT. • Quantitative CT parameters of the chest correlate significantly with pulmonary function test. Low-attenuation areas and ventilation heterogeneity are particularly associated with spirometric parameters related to airway obstruction.</p>



Alternate Title

Eur Radiol




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