First name
Monica
Middle name
I
Last name
Ardura

Title

Return to School and COVID-19 Vaccination for Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States: Expert Opinion for 2021-2022.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 03

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>The COVID-19 pandemic continues to generate challenges for pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and their families. As rates of COVID-19 fluctuate, new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge, and adherence to and implementation of mitigation strategies vary from community to community, questions remain about the best and safest practices to prevent COVID-19 in vulnerable patients. Notably, decisions about returning to school remain difficult. We assembled a team of specialists in pediatric infectious diseases, transplant infectious diseases, public health, transplant psychology, and infection prevention and control to re-address concerns about school re-entry, as well as COVID-19 vaccines, for pediatric SOT recipients in the United States in 2021. Based on available literature and guidance from national organizations, we generated expert statements specific to pediatric SOT recipients focused on school attendance in 2021.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab098

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34734268

Title

Early stool microbiome and metabolome signatures in pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e29384

Date Published

2021 Oct 28

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The contribution of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome to outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is increasingly recognized. Investigations of larger pediatric cohorts aimed at defining the microbiome state and associated metabolic patterns pretransplant are needed.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We sought to describe the pretransplant stool microbiome in pediatric allogenic HCT patients at four centers. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing and untargeted metabolic profiling on pretransplant stool samples. Samples were compared with normal age-matched controls and by clinical characteristics. We then explored associations between stool microbiome measurements and metabolite concentrations.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We profiled stool samples from 88 pediatric allogeneic HCT patients, a median of 4&nbsp;days before transplant. Pretransplant stool samples differed from healthy controls based on indices of alpha diversity and in the proportional abundance of specific taxa and bacterial genes. Relative to stool from healthy patients, samples from HCT patients had decreased proportion of Bacteroides, Ruminococcaeae, and genes involved in butyrate production, but were enriched for gammaproteobacterial species. No systematic differences in stool microbiome or metabolomic profiles by age, transplant indication, or hospital were noted. Stool metabolites demonstrated strong correlations with microbiome composition.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>Stool samples from pediatric allogeneic HCT patients demonstrate substantial dysbiosis early in the transplant course. As microbiome disruptions associate with adverse transplant outcomes, pediatric-specific analyses examining longitudinal microbiome and metabolome changes are imperative to identify causal associations and to inform rational design of interventions.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29384

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

34709713

Title

Comparative Effectiveness of Echinocandins vs Triazoles or Amphotericin B Formulations as Initial Directed Therapy for Invasive Candidiasis in Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 10

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Invasive candidiasis is the most common invasive fungal disease in children and adolescents, but there are limited pediatric-specific antifungal effectiveness data. We compared the effectiveness of echinocandins to triazoles or amphotericin B formulations (triazole/amphotericin B) as initial directed therapy for invasive candidiasis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This multinational observational cohort study enrolled patients aged &gt;120 days and &lt;18 years with proven invasive candidiasis from January 1, 2014, to November 28, 2017, at 43 International Pediatric Fungal Network sites. Primary exposure was initial directed therapy administered at the time qualifying culture became positive for yeast. Exposure groups were categorized by receipt of an echinocandin vs receipt of triazole/amphotericin B. Primary outcome was global response at 14 days following invasive candidiasis onset, adjudicated by a centralized data review committee. Stratified Mantel-Haenszel analyses estimated risk difference between exposure groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Seven-hundred and fifty invasive candidiasis episodes were identified. After exclusions, 541 participants (235 in the echinocandin group and 306 in the triazole/amphotericin B group) remained. Crude failure rates at 14 days for echinocandin and triazole/amphotericin B groups were 9.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 6.0% to 13.6%) and 13.1% (95% CI: 9.3% to 16.8%), respectively. The adjusted 14-day risk difference between echinocandin and triazole/amphotericin B groups was -7.1% points (95% CI: -13.1% to -2.4%), favoring echinocandins. The risk difference was -0.4% (95% CI: -7.5% to 6.7%) at 30 days.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In children with invasive candidiasis, initial directed therapy with an echinocandin was associated with reduced failure rate at 14 days but not 30 days. These results may support echinocandins as initial directed therapy for invasive candidiasis in children and adolescents.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: </strong>NCT01869829.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab024

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34374424

Title

Return to School for Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Expert Opinion on Key Considerations and Best Practices.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 04

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>The COVID-19 pandemic has created many challenges for pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients and their families. As the pandemic persists, patients and their families struggle to identify the best and safest practices for resuming activities as areas re-open. In particular, decisions about returning to school remain difficult. We assembled a team of pediatric infectious diseases, transplant infectious diseases, public health, transplant psychology, and infection prevention and control specialists to address the primary concerns about school re-entry for pediatric SOT recipients in the United States. Based on available literature and guidance from national organizations, we generated consensus statements pertaining to school re-entry specific to pediatric SOT recipients. Although data are limited, and the COVID-19 pandemic highly dynamic, our goal was to create a framework from which providers and caregivers can identify the most important considerations for each pediatric SOT recipient to promote a safe return to school this fall.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa095

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32750142

Title

A multicenter study to define the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridioides difficile infection in pediatric hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Feb 16

ISSN Number

1600-6143

Abstract

<p>Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients are at increased risk for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to describe the incidence of CDI in children transplanted between January 2010 and June 2013. Nested case-control substudies, matched 1:1 by transplant type, institution, patient age, and time of year (quartile) of transplant, identified CDI risk factors. Cohorts included 1496 HCT and 1090 SOT recipients. Among HCT recipients, 355 CDI episodes were diagnosed in 265 recipients (18.2%). Nested case-control study identified prior history of CDI (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 - 4.7), proton-pump inhibitors (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 - 3.4), and exposure to third (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 - 4.2) or fourth generation (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7) cephalosporins as risk factors. Notably, fluoroquinolone exposure appeared protective (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3 - 0.9). Ninety-two episodes of CDI were diagnosed among 79 SOT recipients (7.3%) and exposure to PPIs (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 - 5.4) and third generation cephalosporin therapy (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.4 - 10.5) were identified as risk factors. Strategies to decrease PPI use and changes in the class of prophylactic antibiotics may impact CDI incidence and warrant further study.</p>

DOI

10.1111/ajt.15826

Alternate Title

Am. J. Transplant.

PMID

32064754

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