First name
Larry
Middle name
A
Last name
Greenbaum

Title

A review of ferric citrate clinical studies, and the rationale and design of the Ferric Citrate and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (FIT4KiD) trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 02

ISSN Number

1432-198X

Abstract

<p>Pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by many co-morbidities, including impaired growth and development, CKD-mineral and bone disorder, anemia, dysregulated iron metabolism, and cardiovascular disease. In pediatric CKD cohorts, higher circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) are associated with some of these adverse clinical outcomes, including CKD progression and left ventricular hypertrophy. It is hypothesized that lowering FGF23 levels will reduce the risk of these events and improve clinical outcomes. Reducing FGF23 levels in CKD may be accomplished by targeting two key stimuli of FGF23 production-dietary phosphate absorption and iron deficiency. Ferric citrate is approved for use as an enteral phosphate binder and iron replacement product in adults with CKD. Clinical trials in adult CKD cohorts have also demonstrated that ferric citrate decreases circulating FGF23 concentrations. This review outlines the possible deleterious effects of excess FGF23 in CKD, summarizes data from the adult CKD clinical trials of ferric citrate, and presents the Ferric Citrate and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (FIT4KiD) study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of ferric citrate on FGF23 in pediatric patients with CKD stages 3-4 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT04741646).</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00467-022-05492-7

Alternate Title

Pediatr Nephrol

PMID

35237863

Title

Grip strength in children with chronic kidney disease.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jan 13

ISSN Number

1432-198X

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The relationship between muscle strength and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is unknown. This study aims to quantify the association between grip strength (GS) and kidney function and to explore factors associated with grip strength in children and adolescents with CKD.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We included 411 children (699 GS assessments) of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. They were matched by age, sex, and height to a healthy control from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to quantify the relationship between GS and CKD. Linear mixed models were used to identify factors associated with GS among CKD patients.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Median GS z-score was - 0.72 (IQR - 1.39, 0.11) among CKD patients with CKD stages 2 through 5 having significantly lower GS than CKD stage 1. Compared with healthy controls, CKiD participants had a decreased GS z-score (- 0.53 SD lower, 95% CI - 0.67 to - 0.39) independent of race/ethnicity and body mass index. Factors associated with reduced GS included longer duration of CKD, pre-pubertal status, delayed puberty, neuropsychiatric comorbidities, need of feeding support, need for alkali therapy, and hemoglobin level. Decreased GS was also associated with both a lower frequency and intensity of physical activity.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>CKD is associated with impaired muscle strength in children independent of growth retardation and BMI. Exposure to CKD for a prolonged time is associated with impaired muscle strength. Potential mediators of the impact of CKD on muscle strength include growth retardation, acidosis, poor nutritional status, and low physical activity. Additional studies are needed to assess the efficacy of interventions targeted at these risk factors.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00467-019-04461-x

Alternate Title

Pediatr. Nephrol.

PMID

31932960

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