Year of Publication
BACKGROUND: The development of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is rare but serious and associated with poor outcomes in adults. Little is known about the prevalence, predictors, and prognosis of LVSD in patients diagnosed with HCM as children.
METHODS: Data from patients with HCM in the international, multicenter SHaRe Registry (Sarcomeric Human Cardiomyopathy) were analyzed. LVSD was defined as left ventricular ejection fraction <50% on echocardiographic reports. Prognosis was assessed by a composite of death, cardiac transplantation, and left ventricular assist device implantation. Predictors of developing incident LVSD and subsequent prognosis with LVSD were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models.
RESULTS: We studied 1010 patients diagnosed with HCM during childhood (<18 years of age) and compared them with 6741 patients with HCM diagnosed as adults. In the pediatric HCM cohort, median age at HCM diagnosis was 12.7 years (interquartile range, 8.0-15.3), and 393 (36%) patients were female. At initial SHaRe Registry site evaluation, 56 (5.5%) patients with childhood-diagnosed HCM had prevalent LVSD, and 92 (9.1%) developed incident LVSD during a median follow-up of 5.5 years. Overall LVSD prevalence was 14.7% compared with 8.7% in patients with adult-diagnosed HCM. Median age at incident LVSD was 32.6 years (interquartile range, 21.3-41.6) for the pediatric cohort and 57.2 years (interquartile range, 47.3-66.5) for the adult cohort. Predictors of developing incident LVSD in childhood-diagnosed HCM included age <12 years at HCM diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.72 [CI, 1.13-2.62), male sex (HR, 3.1 [CI, 1.88-5.2), carrying a pathogenic sarcomere variant (HR, 2.19 [CI, 1.08-4.4]), previous septal reduction therapy (HR, 2.34 [CI, 1.42-3.9]), and lower initial left ventricular ejection fraction (HR, 1.53 [CI, 1.38-1.69] per 5% decrease). Forty percent of patients with LVSD and HCM diagnosed during childhood met the composite outcome, with higher rates in female participants (HR, 2.60 [CI, 1.41-4.78]) and patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction <35% (HR, 3.76 [2.16-6.52]).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with childhood-diagnosed HCM have a significantly higher lifetime risk of developing LVSD, and LVSD emerges earlier than for patients with adult-diagnosed HCM. Regardless of age at diagnosis with HCM or LVSD, the prognosis with LVSD is poor, warranting careful surveillance for LVSD, especially as children with HCM transition to adult care.