First name
David
Middle name
M
Last name
Biko

Title

Determination of Contrast Timing by Time-Resolved Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Patients With Bidirectional Glenn and Hemi-Fontan Anastomoses.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

742-746

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1532-3145

Abstract

PURPOSE: Children with single-ventricle congenital heart disease undergo a series of operations to maintain their pulmonary circulation including bidirectional Glenn (BDG) or hemi-Fontan in the second stage to create a superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. We aimed to optimize cardiovascular angiography protocols by determining optimal contrast timing of pulmonary and systemic circulation on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) performed with the technique of time-resolved imaging with interleaved stochastic trajectories (TWIST).

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Cardiac TWIST MRA with lower extremity (LE) contrast injection was analyzed in 92 consecutive patients with a BDG or hemi-Fontan anastomosis. Contrast arrival time to inferior vena cava was set to zero to determine the relative time-to-peak (TTP) of the target vessels. Time-to-peak of each vessel was compared by age (<2 or ≥2 y), ejection fraction (<54% or ≥54%), the median values of heart rate (<111 or ≥111 beats per minute), body surface area (BSA, <0.59 or ≥0.59), cardiac index (<6.04 or ≥6.04), and indexed ascending aorta flow (AscAo_i, <5.3 or ≥5.3). The TTP of the vessels was also correlated with the volumetric parameters.

RESULTS: The mean age of 92 patients (32 female, 60 male) was 3.1 years (0.7-5.6 years). With LE injection, the first peak was depicted in AscAo. Time-to-peak of the pulmonary arteries was approximately 9 seconds later than AscAo. The TTP difference between pulmonary arteries and AscAo was shorter in high heart rate group (8.3 vs 10 seconds, P < 0.001). The TTP difference between AscAo and the mean of pulmonary arteries was significantly shorter in high cardiac index group (8.4 vs 9.9 seconds, P < 0.01) and high AscAo_i group (8.7 vs 9.7 seconds, P = 0.03). The TTP differences were not significant by age, ejection fraction, and BSA. Cardiac index and AscAo_i were negatively correlated with all TTPs except AscAo. The ejection fraction, stroke volume, and atrioventricular regurgitation fraction did not correlate with the TTP.

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with BDG or hemi-Fontan anastomosis, TTP of the pulmonary arteries on TWIST MRA via LE intravenous injection is approximately 9 seconds later than AscAo, approximately 8 and 10 seconds later in high and low heart rate groups, respectively. Cardiac index and AscAo_i have less effect on the TTP than the heart rate. There was no TTP difference of the pulmonary arteries by age, BSA, and ejection fraction and no correlation with ejection fraction, stroke volume, and atrioventricular regurgitation fraction. These data can be used to guide timing of pulmonary arterial enhancement of single-ventricle patients after BDG or hemi-Fontan anastomosis.

DOI

10.1097/RCT.0000000000001332

Alternate Title

J Comput Assist Tomogr

PMID

35617648

Title

Spectral imaging in the pediatric chest: past, present and future.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1910-1920

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1432-1998

Abstract

Computed tomography technology continues to undergo evolution and improvement with each passing decade. From its inception in 1971, to the advent of commercially available dual-energy CT just over a decade ago, and now to the latest innovation, photon-counting detector CT, CT's utility for resolving and discriminating tissue types improves. In this review we discuss the impact of spectral imaging, including dual-energy CT and the recently available photon-counting detector CT, on the imaging of the pediatric chest. We describe the current capabilities and future directions of CT imaging, encompassing both the lungs and the surrounding tissues.

DOI

10.1007/s00247-022-05404-9

Alternate Title

Pediatr Radiol

PMID

35726069

Title

Dual-source computed tomography protocols for the pediatric chest - scan optimization techniques.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1432-1998

Abstract

The gold standard for pediatric chest imaging remains the CT scan. An ideal pediatric chest CT has the lowest radiation dose with the least motion degradation possible in a diagnostic scan. Because of the known inherent risks and costs of anesthesia, non-sedate options are preferred. Dual-source CTs are currently the fastest, lowest-dose CT scanners available, utilizing an ultra-high-pitch mode resulting in sub-second CTs. The dual-energy technique, available on dual-source CT scanners, gathers additional information such as pulmonary blood volume and includes relative contrast enhancement and metallic artifact reduction, features that are not available in high-pitch flash mode. In this article we discuss the benefits and tradeoffs of dual-source CT scan modes and tips on image optimization.

DOI

10.1007/s00247-022-05468-7

Alternate Title

Pediatr Radiol

PMID

35948645

Title

State-of-the-art imaging for lymphatic evaluation in children.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1432-1998

Abstract

The lymphatic system has been poorly understood and its importance neglected for decades. Growing understanding of lymphatic flow pathophysiology through peripheral and central lymphatic flow imaging has improved diagnosis and treatment options in children with lymphatic diseases. Flow dynamics can now be visualized by different means including dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography (DCMRL), the current standard technique to depict central lymphatics. Novel imaging modalities including intranodal, intrahepatic and intramesenteric DCMRL are quickly evolving and have shown important advances in the understanding and guidance of interventional procedures in children with intestinal lymphatic leaks. Lymphatic imaging is gaining importance in the radiologic and clinical fields and new techniques are emerging to overcome its limitations.

DOI

10.1007/s00247-022-05469-6

Alternate Title

Pediatr Radiol

PMID

35980463

Title

Magnetic resonance lymphangiography in post-Fontan palliation patients with MR non-conditional cardiac electronic devices: An institutional experience.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

43-52

Date Published

2022 Feb 23

ISSN Number

1873-4499

Abstract

<p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and treatment planning of many health conditions in children and adults. Yet, its use has been limited in many institutions for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) due to safety concerns. Current evidence relates primarily to devices with transvenous leads. However, patients with complex cardiac anatomy and palliative surgery procedures often require epicardial pacemakers. To date, very few studies have addressed MRI safety considerations with non-conditional CIEDs or abandoned epicardial leads in infants, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that shows Fontan palliation patients who underwent Dynamic Contrast enhanced MR Lymphangiography (DCMRL) with these types of devices. We present our institutional experience with five cases where a DCMRL was safely performed in three children and two adults with Fontan palliation to evaluate their lymphatic anatomy and guide interventional procedures. Regarding our brief experience, we concluded that DCMRL may be considered in post-Fontan patients with non-conditional CIEDs, including epicardial leads, seeking the best diagnostic and treatment options available. Institutional protocols must be revised in advance to perform this technique in a controlled setting.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.clinimag.2022.02.016

Alternate Title

Clin Imaging

PMID

35334301

Title

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography: feasibility of using ferumoxytol in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 10

ISSN Number

1432-1084

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To assess the feasibility of direct intra-lymphatic administration of diluted ferumoxytol as a T1-positive contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced MR lymphangiography (DCMRL) imaging of the central lymphatics in children with renal disease.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In vitro scan of dilute ferumoxytol was initially performed using time-resolved and high-resolution 3D gradient echo (GRE) sequences with short TE values (1 to 1.5&nbsp;ms). A ferumoxytol concentration of 0.25 to 0.40&nbsp;mg/mL was found to retain high signal in the T1-weighted sequences. DCMRL was then performed in 4 children with renal disease with the same 3D GRE sequences administrating diluted ferumoxytol via intra-mesenteric (IM), intra-hepatic (IH), and intra-nodal (IN) routes (6 to 9&nbsp;mL to each site; average total dose of 0.75&nbsp;mg/kg) by slow hand injection (0.5 to 1.0&nbsp;mL/min). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the lymphatics was measured for quantitative evaluation.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Ferumoxytol-enhanced DCMRL was technically successful in all patients. Contrast conspicuity within the lymphatics was sufficient without subtraction. The mean SNR was significantly higher than the muscle (50.1 ± 12.2 vs 13.2 ± 2.8; t = 15.9; p &lt; .001). There were no short-term complications attributed to the administration of ferumoxytol in any of the four patients.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Magnetic resonance lymphangiography using ferumoxytol via IN, IH, and IM access is a new method to directly visualize the central lymphatic system and can be applied safely in patients with renal failure based on our preliminary report of four cases. Ferumoxytol-enhanced DCMRL shows diagnostic image quality by using 3D GRE sequences with short TE values and appropriate dilution of ferumoxytol.</p>

<p><strong>KEY POINTS: </strong>• MR lymphangiography using ferumoxytol via intra-nodal, intra-hepatic, and intra-mesenteric access is a new method to directly visualize the central lymphatic system from the groin to the venous angle. • FDCMRL can be applied safely in patients with renal failure based on our preliminary report of four cases. • FDCMRL shows diagnostic image quality by using 3D GRE sequences with short TE values and appropriate dilution of the ferumoxytol.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00330-021-08448-x

Alternate Title

Eur Radiol

PMID

35001156

Title

Pilot Study for comparative assessment of Dual-energy CT and SPECT-CT V/Q scanning for lung perfusion evaluation in infants.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Dec 16

ISSN Number

1099-0496

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To evaluate clinical applications of Dual-Energy CT (DECT) in pediatric-specific lung diseases and compare ventilation and perfusion findings with those from single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT) V/Q.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>All patients at our institution who underwent exams using both techniques within a 3-month period were included in this study. Two readers independently described findings for DECT, and two other readers independently analyzed the SPECT-CT V/Q scan data. All findings were compared between readers and disagreements were reassessed and resolved by consensus. Inter- modality agreements are described throughout this paper.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Eight patients were included for evaluation. The median age for DECT scanning was 3.5 months (IQR=2). Five of these patients were scanned for both DECT and SPECT-CT V/Q studies the same day, and three had a time gap of 7, 65, and 94 days between studies. The most common indications were chronic lung disease (5/8; 63%) and pulmonary hypertension (6/8; 75%). DECT and SPECT-CT V/Q identified perfusion abnormalities in concordant lobes in most patients (7/8; 88%). In one case, atelectasis limited DECT perfusion assessment. Three patients ultimately underwent lobectomy with corresponding perfusion abnormalities identified by all reviewers on both DECT and SPECT-CT V/Q in all resected lobes.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>DECT is a feasible technique that could be considered as an alternative for SPECT-CT V/Q for lung perfusion evaluation in infants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p>

DOI

10.1002/ppul.25788

Alternate Title

Pediatr Pulmonol

PMID

34914194

Title

Changes over time in inflammatory and structural lesions at the sacroiliac joint in children with spondyloarthritis exposed and unexposed to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

167

Date Published

2021 Dec 02

ISSN Number

1546-0096

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The objective of this work was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes over time in inflammatory and structural lesions at the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in children with spondyloarthritis (SpA) exposed and unexposed to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a retrospective, multicenter study of SpA patients with suspected or confirmed sacroiliitis who underwent at ≥2 pelvic MRI scans. Images were reviewed independently by 3 radiologists and scored for inflammatory and structural changes using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) SIJ inflammation score (SIS) and structural score (SSS). Longitudinal, quantitative changes in patient MRI scans were measured using descriptive statistics and stratified by TNFi exposure. We used an average treatment effects (ATE) regression model to explore the average effect of TNFi exposure over time on inflammatory and structural lesions, adjusting for baseline lesion scores.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Forty-six subjects were evaluated using the SIS (n&nbsp;= 45) and SSS (n&nbsp;= 18). Median age at baseline imaging was 13.6 years, 63% were male and 71% were white. Twenty-three subjects (50%) were TNFi exposed between MRI studies. The median change in SIS in TNFi exposed and unexposed subjects with a baseline SIS ≥0 was - 20.7 and - 14.3, respectively (p&nbsp;= 0.09). Eleven (85%) TNFi exposed and 8 (89%) unexposed subjects with a baseline SIS ≥0 met the SIS minimal clinically important difference (MCID; ≥2.5). Using the ATE model adjusted for baseline SIS, the average effect of TNFi on SIS in patients with a baseline SIS ≥2 was - 14.5 (p&nbsp;&lt; 0.01). Unadjusted erosion change score was significantly worse in TNFi unexposed versus exposed subjects (p&nbsp;= 0.03) but in the ATE model the effect of TNFi was not significant.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>This study quantitatively describes how lesions in the SIJs on MRI change over time in patients exposed to TNFi versus unexposed. Follow-up imaging in TNFi exposed patients showed greater improvement than the unexposed group by most metrics, some of which reached statistical significance. Surprisingly, a majority of TNFi unexposed children with a baseline SIS≥2 met the SIS MCID. Additional studies assessing the short and long-term effects of TNFi on inflammatory and structural changes in juvenile SpA are needed.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s12969-021-00647-6

Alternate Title

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J

PMID

34857002

Title

Feasibility of T2 Mapping of the Sacroiliac Joints in Healthy Control Subjects and Children and Young Adults with Sacroiliitis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 10

ISSN Number

2578-5745

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To assess the feasibility of T2 mapping for evaluating pediatric SIJ cartilage at 3 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Healthy control subjects and adolescents with sacroiliitis underwent a 3T MRI dedicated pelvic protocol that included a T2 mapping sequence consisting of multislice, multiecho acquisition. Healthy control subjects were prospectively recruited from our primary care practices as part of a larger imaging study, whereas adolescents with sacroiliitis were recruited specifically for this study. Regions of interest (ROIs) were hand-drawn by a senior pediatric radiologist twice and a radiology fellow twice to calibrate and test reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). T2 relaxation time between control subjects and cases was compared using univariate linear regression. We tested the association of T2 relaxation time in adolescents with sacroiliitis with patient-reported outcomes and the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada sacroiliac joint (SIJ) inflammation and structural scores using Pearson correlation coefficients.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Fourteen subjects were evaluable (six control subjects: median age 13.7 years [interquartile range (IQR): 12.2-15.5], 67% male patients; eight cases: median age 17.4 years [IQR: 12.5-20], 88% male patients]. Acquisition time for T2 mapping sequences was approximately 6 minutes, and segmenting the ROI for each SIJ took approximately 3 minutes. The intrarater and inter-rater ICCs were 0.67 and 0.46, respectively, indicating good to fair reliability. There was a trend, albeit statistically insignificant, in longer median T2 relaxation time in cases (43.04 ms; IQR: 41.25-49.76 ms) versus healthy control subjects (40.0 ms; IQR: 38.9-48.6 ms). Although not statistically significant, cases with longer T2 relaxation time tended to occur with poorer patient-reported outcomes. Correlations with the SIJ inflammation and structural lesion scores were weak.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>T2 mapping of the SIJ cartilage in children was feasible and reliable. Larger controlled and longitudinal assessments are needed to assess the validity and utility of these measurements for routine clinical practice and trials.</p>

DOI

10.1002/acr2.11354

Alternate Title

ACR Open Rheumatol

PMID

34757697

Title

Optimizing neonatal cardiac imaging (magnetic resonance/computed tomography).

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 17

ISSN Number

1432-1998

Abstract

<p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT perform an important role in the evaluation of neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) when echocardiography is not sufficient for surgical planning or postoperative follow-up. Cardiac MRI and cardiac CT have complementary applications in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease in neonates. This review focuses on the indications and technical aspects of these modalities and special considerations for imaging neonates with CHD.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00247-021-05201-w

Alternate Title

Pediatr Radiol

PMID

34657169

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