First name
Rui
Last name
Xiao

Title

Sustainable deimplementation of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis: study protocol for the Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) type III effectiveness-deimplementation cluster-randomized trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

72

Date Published

10/2022

ISSN Number

1748-5908

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Methods of sustaining the deimplementation of overused medical practices (i.e., practices not supported by evidence) are understudied. In pediatric hospital medicine, continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of children with the common viral respiratory illness bronchiolitis is recommended only under specific circumstances. Three national guidelines discourage its use for children who are not receiving supplemental oxygen, but guideline-discordant practice (i.e., overuse) remains prevalent. A 6-hospital pilot of educational outreach with audit and feedback resulted in immediate reductions in overuse; however, the best strategies to optimize sustainment of deimplementation success are unknown.

METHODS: The Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) trial will compare two deimplementation strategies in a hybrid type III effectiveness-deimplementation trial. This longitudinal cluster-randomized design will be conducted in Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network hospitals and will include baseline measurement, active deimplementation, and sustainment phases. After a baseline measurement period, 16-19 hospitals will be randomized to a deimplementation strategy that targets unlearning (educational outreach with audit and feedback), and the other 16-19 will be randomized to a strategy that targets unlearning and substitution (adding an EHR-integrated clinical pathway decision support tool). The primary outcome is the sustainment of deimplementation in bronchiolitis patients who are not receiving any supplemental oxygen, analyzed as a longitudinal difference-in-differences comparison of overuse rates across study arms. Secondary outcomes include equity of deimplementation and the fidelity to, and cost of, each deimplementation strategy. To understand how the deimplementation strategies work, we will test hypothesized mechanisms of routinization (clinicians developing new routines supporting practice change) and institutionalization (embedding of practice change into existing organizational systems).

DISCUSSION: The EMO trial will advance the science of deimplementation by providing new insights into the processes, mechanisms, costs, and likelihood of sustained practice change using rigorously designed deimplementation strategies. The trial will also advance care for a high-incidence, costly pediatric lung disease.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05132322 . Registered on November 10, 2021.

DOI

10.1186/s13012-022-01246-z

Alternate Title

Implement Sci

PMID

36271399

Title

Use of renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors in children with lupus and time to glucocorticoid discontinuation.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

395-404

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1523-1755

Abstract

There is little data to inform use of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors in pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we sought to characterize RAAS inhibitor use in pediatric SLE and determine whether early RAAS inhibitor initiation among children with incident lupus nephritis is associated with decreased duration of chronic glucocorticoid exposure. A retrospective cohort study was performed of children (ages 5-18) with SLE and/or lupus nephritis in the Truven MarketScan™ Medicaid and Commercial databases (2013-2018) and estimated RAAS inhibitor use. Among incident nephritis cases, we used competing risk hazard models with inverse probability of treatment weighting to estimate the association between RAAS inhibitor initiation less than 180 days after diagnosis and time to glucocorticoid discontinuation with kidney failure as a competing event. Among 592 children with nephritis and 1407 children with non-kidney SLE, 67% and 15% ever received RAAS inhibitors, respectively. Median duration of RAAS inhibitor use among 323 incident users was 14 and 9 months in children with and without nephritis, respectively. Medicaid enrollment was independently associated with greater likelihood of RAAS inhibitor use, irrespective of nephritis. Among 158 incident nephritis cases, early RAAS inhibitor initiation was significantly associated with a faster rate of glucocorticoid discontinuation (adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval [1.09 - 3.00]). Thus, early initiation of RAAS inhibitors may have a role in children newly diagnosed with lupus nephritis; not only those with refractory proteinuria after induction therapy. Hence, integrated health systems data could be leveraged to confirm these findings and optimize adjunctive therapies in pediatric lupus.

DOI

10.1016/j.kint.2022.04.023

Alternate Title

Kidney Int

PMID

35618096

Title

The current state of adult metabolic medicine in the United States: Results of a nationwide survey.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1722-1731

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1530-0366

Abstract

PURPOSE: Patients with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) now have improved health outcomes and increased survival into adulthood. There is scant evidence on managing adults with IMDs. We present an analysis of current care practices for adults with IMDs in the United States.

METHODS: We created and distributed an online survey to US members of the Society of Inherited Metabolic Disorders. The survey addressed ambulatory care, acute management, and health care transition (HCT) practices of adults with IMDs.

RESULTS: The survey was completed by 91 providers from 73 institutions. Most adult patients with IMDs receive lifelong care from a single metabolic clinician, predominantly in pediatric clinic settings. Adults receive comprehensive ambulatory metabolic care, but fewer trainees participate compared with pediatric visits. Most acute IMD management occurs in pediatric hospitals. Clinician comfort with HCT increased the frequency of HCT planning. Overall, all respondents felt that providing specialized care to adults with IMDs is high value.

CONCLUSION: Our survey demonstrates the paucity of clinical resources dedicated to adult metabolic medicine. Care is fragmented and varies by medical system. Interest in HCT is robust but would benefit from standardized practices. Our findings reinforce the need for greater focus on adult metabolic medicine in the United States.

DOI

10.1016/j.gim.2022.04.018

Alternate Title

Genet Med

PMID

35543711

Title

Characteristics of Neonates with Cardiopulmonary Disease Who Experience Seizures: A Multicenter Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

63-73

Date Published

2022 03

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To compare key seizure and outcome characteristics between neonates with and without cardiopulmonary disease.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>The Neonatal Seizure Registry is a multicenter, prospectively acquired cohort of neonates with clinical or electroencephalographic (EEG)-confirmed seizures. Cardiopulmonary disease was defined as congenital heart disease, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and exposure to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. We assessed continuous EEG monitoring strategy, seizure characteristics, seizure management, and outcomes for neonates with and without cardiopulmonary disease.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We evaluated 83 neonates with cardiopulmonary disease and 271 neonates without cardiopulmonary disease. Neonates with cardiopulmonary disease were more likely to have EEG-only seizures (40% vs 21%, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001) and experience their first seizure later than those without cardiopulmonary disease (174 vs 21&nbsp;hours of age, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001), but they had similar seizure exposure (many-recurrent electrographic seizures 39% vs 43%, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.27). Phenobarbital was the primary initial antiseizure medication for both groups (90%), and both groups had similarly high rates of incomplete response to initial antiseizure medication administration (66% vs 68%, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.75). Neonates with cardiopulmonary disease were discharged from the hospital later (hazard ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.25-0.45, P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001), although rates of in-hospital mortality were similar between the groups (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% CI 0.66-1.94, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.64).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Neonates with and without cardiopulmonary disease had a similarly high seizure exposure, but neonates with cardiopulmonary disease were more likely to experience EEG-only seizures and had seizure onset later in the clinical course. Phenobarbital was the most common seizure treatment, but seizures were often refractory to initial antiseizure medication. These data support guidelines recommending continuous EEG in neonates with cardiopulmonary disease and indicate a need for optimized therapeutic strategies.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.10.058

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

34728234

Title

Incidence Rates of Psoriasis in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Juvenile Arthritis Treated with TNFi Agents and DMARDs.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 15

ISSN Number

0315-162X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To estimate the differential effect of tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapies and presence/absence of conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) on the incidence of psoriasis in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a retrospective cohort study from 2008 to 2020. TNFi and DMARD exposures were dichotomized as ever/never. The primary outcome was incident psoriasis. Incidence rates (IRs) of psoriasis were stratified by underlying diagnosis, TNFi agent, and DMARD use. Poisson regression was used to assess the IR ratios (IRR) between exposure groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>5088 children met inclusion criteria - 3794 (75%) had IBD, 1189 (23%) had JIA, and 105 (2%) had CNO. 613 (30%) and 1410 (70%) had TNFi exposure with or without a DMARD, respectively. IRR of developing psoriasis in patients exposed to adalimumab was 2.70 times higher (95% CI: 1.52-4.75; p&lt;0.001) than those who did not receive any TNFi treatment, when controlling for DMARD, sex, and family history of psoriasis. IRR was lower, but not significantly different, for patients exposed to infliximab (IRR=2.34; 95% CI: 1.56-3.51; p&lt;0.001) and etanercept (IRR=2.22; 95% CI: 1.17-4.21; p=0.006) compared to TNFi unexposed patients. IRR of TNFi exposure was lower by 0.25 (p&lt;0.001) in DMARD exposed patients compared to non- DMARD exposed patients.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>IRR of TNFi-induced psoriasis was not significantly different amongst adalimumab, infliximab, and etanercept. However, for patients with exposure to any of the TNFi evaluated, the IRR was significantly lower in those also exposed to a DMARD.</p>

DOI

10.3899/jrheum.211359

Alternate Title

J Rheumatol

PMID

35428721

Title

Characterizing Neurocognitive Impairment in Juvenile Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Subjective and Objective Measures of Dyscognition.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

848009

Date Published

2022

ISSN Number

2296-2360

Abstract

<p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Our understanding of brain fog, or dyscognition, among youth with juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome is limited. We aimed to determine the prevalence of subjective (self-reported) and objective dyscognition, as well as factors associated with subjective dyscognition in juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional cohort study of patients ( = 31) 12-17 years old diagnosed with primary juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome and one of their parents from 2017 to 2019. Subjects completed a series of survey measures and patients completed a brief neurocognitive battery. Subjective dyscognition was determined based on scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Cognitive Functioning Scale and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-2) global executive composite (GEC). Objective dyscognition was defined as impairment of more than two standard deviations in any of the neurocognitive domains. We used Fisher's exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test, as appropriate, to compare clinical patients based on the presence of dyscognition. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to determine factors associated with subjective dyscognition.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 31 subjects, 65% reported subjective dyscognition and 39% had objective dyscognition, primarily in the domains of psychomotor speed (23%), executive function (23%), and attention (3%). Subjective dyscognition was not indicative of objective dyscognition. Subjective dyscognition was independently associated with functional disability (OR: 1.19 [95% CI: 1.02-1.40]) and anxiety (OR: 1.12 [95% CI: 1.02-1.24]).</p>

<p><strong>Discussion: </strong>Adolescents with fibromyalgia predominantly experience subjective dyscognition but more than 1/3 also experience objective dyscognition. Future research should explore the impact of interdisciplinary rehabilitation programs on the treatment of dyscognition in youth with JFMS.</p>

DOI

10.3389/fped.2022.848009

Alternate Title

Front Pediatr

PMID

35281242

Title

Multicenter Prospective Study of Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis in Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 20

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) relies on insensitive cultures; the relative utility of fungal biomarkers in children is unclear.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This multinational observational cohort study enrolled patients aged &gt;120 days and &lt;18 years with concern for IC from 1 January 2015 to 26 September 2019 at 25 centers. Blood collected at onset of symptoms was tested using T2Candida, Fungitell (1→3)-β-D-glucan, Platelia Candida Antigen (Ag) Plus, and Platelia Candida Antibody (Ab) Plus assays. Operating characteristics were determined for each biomarker, and assays meeting a defined threshold considered in combination. Sterile site cultures were the reference standard.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Five hundred participants were enrolled at 22 centers in 3 countries, and IC was diagnosed in 13 (2.6%). Thirteen additional blood specimens were collected and successfully spiked with Candida species, to achieve a 5.0% event rate. Valid T2Candida, Fungitell, Platelia Candida Ag Plus, and Platelia Candida Ab Plus assay results were available for 438, 467, 473, and 473 specimens, respectively. Operating characteristics for T2Candida were most optimal for detecting IC due to any Candida species, with results as follows: sensitivity, 80.0% (95% confidence interval, 59.3%-93.2%), specificity 97.1% (95.0%-98.5%), positive predictive value, 62.5% (43.7%-78.9%), and negative predictive value, 98.8% (97.2%-99.6%). Only T2Candida and Platelia Candida Ag Plus assays met the threshold for combination testing. Positive result for either yielded the following results: sensitivity, 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 65.1%- 97.1%); specificity, 94.7% (92.0%-96.7%); positive predictive value, 47.5% (31.5%-63.9%); and negative predictive value, 99.2% (97.7%-99.8%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>T2Candida alone or in combination with Platelia Candida Ag Plus may be beneficial for rapid detection of Candida species in children with concern for IC.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: </strong>NCT02220790.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciab928

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35134165

Title

Using Machine Learning to Identify Metabolomic Signatures of Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Etiology.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

375-386

Date Published

2022 Feb

ISSN Number

1533-3450

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Untargeted plasma metabolomic profiling combined with machine learning (ML) may lead to discovery of metabolic profiles that inform our understanding of pediatric CKD causes. We sought to identify metabolomic signatures in pediatric CKD based on diagnosis: FSGS, obstructive uropathy (OU), aplasia/dysplasia/hypoplasia (A/D/H), and reflux nephropathy (RN).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Untargeted metabolomic quantification (GC-MS/LC-MS, Metabolon) was performed on plasma from 702 Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study participants (: FSGS=63, OU=122, A/D/H=109, and RN=86). Lasso regression was used for feature selection, adjusting for clinical covariates. Four methods were then applied to stratify significance: logistic regression, support vector machine, random forest, and extreme gradient boosting. ML training was performed on 80% total cohort subsets and validated on 20% holdout subsets. Important features were selected based on being significant in at least two of the four modeling approaches. We additionally performed pathway enrichment analysis to identify metabolic subpathways associated with CKD cause.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>ML models were evaluated on holdout subsets with receiver-operator and precision-recall area-under-the-curve, F1 score, and Matthews correlation coefficient. ML models outperformed no-skill prediction. Metabolomic profiles were identified based on cause. FSGS was associated with the sphingomyelin-ceramide axis. FSGS was also associated with individual plasmalogen metabolites and the subpathway. OU was associated with gut microbiome-derived histidine metabolites.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>ML models identified metabolomic signatures based on CKD cause. Using ML techniques in conjunction with traditional biostatistics, we demonstrated that sphingomyelin-ceramide and plasmalogen dysmetabolism are associated with FSGS and that gut microbiome-derived histidine metabolites are associated with OU.</p>

DOI

10.1681/ASN.2021040538

Alternate Title

J Am Soc Nephrol

PMID

35017168

Title

Association Between Children With Life-Threatening Conditions and Their Parents' and Siblings' Mental and Physical Health.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2137250

Date Published

2021 Dec 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Despite concerns regarding the potential deleterious physical and mental health outcomes among family members of a child with a life-threatening condition (LTC), few studies have examined empirical measures of health outcomes among these family members.</p>

<p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To examine whether mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers of children with 1 of 4 types of pediatric LTCs have higher rates of health care encounters, diagnoses, and prescriptions compared with families of children without these conditions.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This retrospective cohort study included US families with commercial insurance coverage from a single carrier. Children who had 1 of 4 LTCs (substantial prematurity, critical congenital heart disease, cancer, or a condition resulting in severe neurologic impairment) were identified by a diagnosis in their insurance claim data between July 1, 2015, and June 30, 2016. Each case child and their family was matched with up to 4 control children and their families based on the age of the case and control children. Data were analyzed between August 2020 and March 2021.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Having a child or sibling with substantial prematurity, critical congenital heart disease, cancer, or a condition resulting in severe and progressive neurologic impairment.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes: </strong>Rates of occurrence of health care encounters, physical and mental health diagnoses, and physical and mental health medication prescriptions, identified from insurance claims data, were compared between case and control families using a multivariable negative binomial regression model. The statistical analysis adjusted for observed differences between case and control families and accounted for clustering at the family level.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>The study included 25 528 children (6909 case children [27.1%] and 18 619 control children [72.9%]; median age, 6.0 years [IQR, 1-13 years]; 13 294 [52.1%] male), 43 357 parents (11 586 case parents [26.7%] and 31 771 control parents [73.3%]; mean [SD] age, 40.4 [8.1] years; 22 318 [51.5%] female), and 25 706 siblings (7664 case siblings [29.8%] and 18 042 control siblings [70.2%]; mean [SD] age, 12.1 [6.5] years; 13 114 [51.0%] male). Overall, case mothers had higher rates of the composite outcome of health care encounters, diagnoses, and prescriptions compared with control mothers (incident rate ratio [IRR], 1.61; 95% CI, 1.54-1.68), as did case fathers compared with control fathers (IRR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.46-1.64). Sisters of children with LTCs had higher rates of the composite outcome compared with sisters of children without LTCs (IRR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.55-1.82), as did brothers of children with LTCs compared with brothers of children without LTCs (IRR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.56-1.85).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this cohort study, mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers who had a child or sibling with 1 of 4 types of LTCs had higher rates of health care encounters, diagnoses, and medication prescriptions compared with families who did not have a child with that condition. The findings suggest that family members of children with LTCs may experience poorer mental and physical health outcomes. Interventions for parents and siblings of children with LTCs that aim to safeguard their mental and physical well-being appear to be warranted.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.37250

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

34928360

Title

Changes over time in inflammatory and structural lesions at the sacroiliac joint in children with spondyloarthritis exposed and unexposed to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

167

Date Published

2021 Dec 02

ISSN Number

1546-0096

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The objective of this work was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes over time in inflammatory and structural lesions at the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in children with spondyloarthritis (SpA) exposed and unexposed to tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a retrospective, multicenter study of SpA patients with suspected or confirmed sacroiliitis who underwent at ≥2 pelvic MRI scans. Images were reviewed independently by 3 radiologists and scored for inflammatory and structural changes using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) SIJ inflammation score (SIS) and structural score (SSS). Longitudinal, quantitative changes in patient MRI scans were measured using descriptive statistics and stratified by TNFi exposure. We used an average treatment effects (ATE) regression model to explore the average effect of TNFi exposure over time on inflammatory and structural lesions, adjusting for baseline lesion scores.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Forty-six subjects were evaluated using the SIS (n&nbsp;= 45) and SSS (n&nbsp;= 18). Median age at baseline imaging was 13.6 years, 63% were male and 71% were white. Twenty-three subjects (50%) were TNFi exposed between MRI studies. The median change in SIS in TNFi exposed and unexposed subjects with a baseline SIS ≥0 was - 20.7 and - 14.3, respectively (p&nbsp;= 0.09). Eleven (85%) TNFi exposed and 8 (89%) unexposed subjects with a baseline SIS ≥0 met the SIS minimal clinically important difference (MCID; ≥2.5). Using the ATE model adjusted for baseline SIS, the average effect of TNFi on SIS in patients with a baseline SIS ≥2 was - 14.5 (p&nbsp;&lt; 0.01). Unadjusted erosion change score was significantly worse in TNFi unexposed versus exposed subjects (p&nbsp;= 0.03) but in the ATE model the effect of TNFi was not significant.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>This study quantitatively describes how lesions in the SIJs on MRI change over time in patients exposed to TNFi versus unexposed. Follow-up imaging in TNFi exposed patients showed greater improvement than the unexposed group by most metrics, some of which reached statistical significance. Surprisingly, a majority of TNFi unexposed children with a baseline SIS≥2 met the SIS MCID. Additional studies assessing the short and long-term effects of TNFi on inflammatory and structural changes in juvenile SpA are needed.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s12969-021-00647-6

Alternate Title

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J

PMID

34857002

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