First name
Jeffrey
Middle name
D
Last name
Horbar

Title

Late-Onset Sepsis Among Very Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

 

OBJECTIVES: To determine the epidemiology, microbiology, and associated outcomes of late-onset sepsis among very preterm infants using a large and nationally representative cohort of NICUs across the United States.

METHODS: Prospective observational study of very preterm infants born 401 to 1500 g and/or 22 to 29 weeks' gestational age (GA) from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020, who survived >3 days in 774 participating Vermont Oxford Network centers. Late-onset sepsis was defined as isolation of a pathogenic bacteria from blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid, or fungi from blood, obtained >3 days after birth. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between infants with and without late-onset sepsis.

RESULTS: Of 118 650 infants, 10 501 (8.9%) had late-onset sepsis for an incidence rate of 88.5 per 1000 (99% confidence interval [CI] [86.4-90.7]). Incidence was highest for infants born ≤23 weeks GA (322.0 per 1000, 99% CI [306.3-338.1]). The most common pathogens were coagulase negative staphylococci (29.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (23.0%), but 34 different pathogens were identified. Infected infants had lower survival (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 0.89, 95% CI [0.87-0.90]) and increased risks of home oxygen (aRR 1.32, 95% CI [1.26-1.38]), tracheostomy (aRR 2.88, 95% CI [2.47-3.37]), and gastrostomy (aRR 2.09, 95% CI [1.93-2.57]) among survivors.

CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of very preterm infants continue to suffer late-onset sepsis, particularly those born at the lowest GAs. Infected infants had higher mortality, and survivors had increased risks of technology-dependent chronic morbidities. The persistent burden and diverse microbiology of late-onset sepsis among very preterm infants underscore the need for innovative and potentially organism-specific prevention strategies.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2022-058813

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

36366916

Title

National Healthcare Safety Network 2018 Baseline Neonatal Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratios.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 24

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The microbiologic etiologies, clinical manifestations, and antimicrobial treatment of neonatal infections differ substantially from infections in adult and pediatric patient populations. In 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed neonatal-specific (Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratios SAARs), a set of risk-adjusted antimicrobial use metrics that hospitals participating in the National Healthcare Safety Network's (NHSN's) antimicrobial use surveillance can use in their antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with the Vermont Oxford Network, identified eligible patient care locations, defined SAAR agent categories, and implemented neonatal-specific NHSN Annual Hospital Survey questions to gather hospital-level data necessary for risk adjustment. SAAR predictive models were developed using 2018 data reported to NHSN from eligible neonatal units.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The 2018 baseline neonatal SAAR models were developed for 7 SAAR antimicrobial agent categories using data reported from 324 neonatal units in 304 unique hospitals. Final models were used to calculate predicted antimicrobial days, the SAAR denominator, for level II neonatal special care nurseries and level II/III, III, and IV NICUs.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>NHSN's initial set of neonatal SAARs provides a way for hospital ASPs to assess whether antimicrobial agents in their facility are used at significantly higher or lower rates compared with a national baseline or whether an individual SAAR value is above or below a specific percentile on a given SAAR distribution, which can prompt investigations into prescribing practices and inform ASP interventions.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006253

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35075483

Title

Early-Onset Sepsis Among Very Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Sep 07

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the epidemiology and microbiology of early-onset sepsis (EOS) among very preterm infants using a nationally representative cohort from academic and community hospitals to inform empirical antibiotic guidance, highlight risk factors for infection, and aid in prognostication for infected infants.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Prospective observational study of very preterm infants born weighing 401 to 1500 g or at 22 to 29 weeks' gestational age from January 2018 to December 2019 in 753 Vermont Oxford Network centers. EOS was defined as a culture-confirmed bacterial infection of the blood or cerebrospinal fluid in the 3 days after birth. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between infants with and without EOS.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 84 333 included infants, 1139 had EOS for an incidence rate of 13.5 per 1000 very preterm births (99% confidence interval [CI] 12.5-14.6). (538 of 1158; 46.5%) and group B (218 of 1158; 18.8%) were the most common pathogens. Infected infants had longer lengths of stay (median 92 vs 66 days) and lower rates of survival (67.5% vs 90.4%; adjusted risk ratio 0.82 [95% CI 0.79-0.85]) and of survival without morbidity (26.1% vs 59.4%; adjusted risk ratio 0.66 [95% CI 0.60-0.72]).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In a nationally representative sample of very preterm infants with EOS from 2018 to 2019, approximately one-third of isolates were neither group B nor . Three-quarters of all infected infants either died or survived with a major medical morbidity. The profoundly negative impact of EOS on very preterm infants highlights the need for novel preventive strategies.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-052456

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

34493539

Title

Discharge Age and Weight for Very Preterm Infants: 2005-2018.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 28

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>A complex set of medical, social, and financial factors underlie decisions to discharge very preterm infants. As care practices change, whether postmenstrual age and weight at discharge have changed is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Between 2005 and 2018, 824 US Vermont Oxford Network member hospitals reported 314 811 infants 24 to 29 weeks' gestational age at birth without major congenital abnormalities who survived to discharge from the hospital. Using quantile regression, adjusting for infant characteristics and complexity of hospital course, we estimated differences in median age, weight, and discharge weight score at discharge stratified by gestational age at birth and by NICU type.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>From 2005 to 2018, postmenstrual age at discharge increased an estimated 8 (compatibility interval [CI]: 8 to 9) days for all infants. For infants initially discharged from the hospital, discharge weight increased an estimated 316 (CI: 308 to 324) grams, and median discharge weight score increased an estimated 0.19 (CI: 0.18 to 0.20) standard units. Increases occurred within all birth gestational ages and across all NICU types. The proportion of infants discharged home from the hospital on human milk increased, and the proportions of infants discharged home from the hospital on oxygen or a cardiorespiratory monitor decreased.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Gestational age and weight at discharge increased steadily from 2005 to 2018 for survivors 24 to 29 weeks' gestation with undetermined causes, benefits, and costs.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-016006

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

33510034

Title

Metrics of neonatal antibiotic use.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

151329

Date Published

2020 Oct 13

ISSN Number

1558-075X

Abstract

<p>Responsible use of antibiotics is critical to preserve their effectiveness and to minimize adverse outcomes associated with overuse and misuse. Newborn infants are a unique population with high rates of antibiotic exposure. In order to improve neonatal antibiotic use, accurate and meaningful metrics are required. In this review, we highlight and compare existing antibiotic use metrics in detail, including definitions, current applications, advantages, and limitations of each metric, with a focus on applicability to neonatal populations. We explore future directions for identification of accurate and meaningful metrics that will allow hospitals and stakeholders to pinpoint antibiotic utilization practices that should be emulated or avoided, and ultimately improve the safety and quality of neonatal care.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.semperi.2020.151329

Alternate Title

Semin Perinatol

PMID

33158602

Title

Racial Segregation and Inequality in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for Very Low-Birth-Weight and Very Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

455-461

Date Published

2019 05 01

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Racial and ethnic minorities receive lower-quality health care than white non-Hispanic individuals in the United States. Where minority infants receive care and the role that may play in the quality of care received is unclear.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the extent of segregation and inequality of care of very low-birth-weight and very preterm infants across neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in the United States.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cohort study of 743 NICUs in the Vermont Oxford Network included 117 982 black, Hispanic, Asian, and white infants born at 401 g to 1500 g or 22 to 29 weeks' gestation from January 2014 to December 2016. Analysis began January 2018.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The NICU segregation index and NICU inequality index were calculated at the hospital level as the Gini coefficients associated with the Lorenz curves for black, Hispanic, and Asian infants compared with white infants, with NICUs ranked by proportion of white infants for the NICU segregation index and by composite Baby-MONITOR (Measure of Neonatal Intensive Care Outcomes Research) score for the NICU inequality index.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Infants (36 359 black [31%], 21 808 Hispanic [18%], 5920 Asian [5%], and 53 895 white [46%]) were segregated among the 743 NICUs by race and ethnicity (NICU segregation index: black: 0.50 [95% CI, 0.46-0.53], Hispanic: 0.58 [95% CI, 0.54-0.61], and Asian: 0.45 [95% CI, 0.40-0.50]). Compared with white infants, black infants were concentrated at NICUs with lower-quality scores, and Hispanic and Asian infants were concentrated at NICUs with higher-quality scores (NICU inequality index: black: 0.07 [95% CI, 0.02-0.13], Hispanic: -0.10 [95% CI, -0.17 to -0.04], and Asian: -0.26 [95% CI, -0.32 to -0.19]). There was marked variation among the census regions in weighted mean NICU quality scores (range: -0.69 to 0.85). Region of residence explained the observed inequality for Hispanic infants but not for black or Asian infants.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>Black, Hispanic, and Asian infants were segregated across NICUs, reflecting the racial segregation of minority populations in the United States. There were large differences between geographic regions in NICU quality. After accounting for these differences, compared with white infants, Asian infants received care at higher-quality NICUs and black infants, at lower-quality NICUs. Explaining these patterns will require understanding the effects of sociodemographic factors and public policies on hospital quality, access, and choice for minority women and their infants.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.0241

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

30907924

Title

Racial and Ethnic Differences Over Time in Outcomes of Infants Born Less Than 30 Weeks' Gestation.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Sep

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To examine changes in care practices over time by race and ethnicity and whether the decrease in hospital mortality and severe morbidities has benefited infants of minority over infants of white mothers.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Infants 22 to 29 weeks' gestation born between January 2006 and December 2017 at a Vermont Oxford Network center in the United States were studied. We examined mortality and morbidity rate differences and 95% confidence intervals for African American and Hispanic versus white infants by birth year. We tested temporal differences in mortality and morbidity rates between white and African American or Hispanic infants using a likelihood ratio test on nested binomial regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Disparities for certain care practices such as antenatal corticosteroids and for some in-hospital outcomes have narrowed over time for minority infants. Compared with white infants, African American infants had a faster decline for mortality, hypothermia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis, whereas Hispanic infants had a faster decline for mortality, respiratory distress syndrome, and pneumothorax. Other morbidities showed a constant rate difference between African American and Hispanic versus white infants over time. Despite the improvements, outcomes including hypothermia, mortality, necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis, and severe intraventricular hemorrhage remained elevated by the end of the study period, especially among African American infants.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Racial and ethnic disparities in vital care practices and certain outcomes have decreased. That the quality deficit among minority infants occurred for several care practice measures and potentially modifiable outcomes suggests a critical role for quality improvement initiatives tailored for minority-serving hospitals.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-1106

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31405887

Title

A Collaborative Multicenter QI Initiative To Improve Antibiotic Stewardship in Newborns.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Nov 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine if NICU teams participating in a multicenter quality improvement (QI) collaborative achieve increased compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) core elements for antibiotic stewardship and demonstrate reductions in antibiotic use (AU) among newborns.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>From January 2016 to December 2017, multidisciplinary teams from 146 NICUs participated in Choosing Antibiotics Wisely, an Internet-based national QI collaborative conducted by the Vermont Oxford Network consisting of interactive Web sessions, a series of 4 point-prevalence audits, and expert coaching designed to help teams test and implement the CDC core elements of antibiotic stewardship. The audits assessed unit-level adherence to the CDC core elements and collected patient-level data about AU. The AU rate was defined as the percentage of infants in the NICU receiving 1 or more antibiotics on the day of the audit.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The percentage of NICUs implementing the CDC core elements increased in each of the 7 domains (leadership: 15.4%-68.8%; accountability: 54.5%-95%; drug expertise: 61.5%-85.1%; actions: 21.7%-72.3%; tracking: 14.7%-78%; reporting: 6.3%-17.7%; education: 32.9%-87.2%; &lt; .005 for all measures). The median AU rate decreased from 16.7% to 12.1% ( for trend &lt; .0013), a 34% relative risk reduction.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>NICU teams participating in this QI collaborative increased adherence to the CDC core elements of antibiotic stewardship and achieved significant reductions in AU.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-0589

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31676682

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