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The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has dramatically increased worldwide, and this "evolving crisis" is currently regarded as one of the most important public health threats. The growing problem of ESBL-PE antimicrobial resistance seems to have a dual face between "Scylla and Charybdis": on one hand the potential for rapid spread and dissemination of resistance mechanisms and on the other hand the injudicious overuse of antimicrobial agents and the inadequate infection control measures, especially in the health-care setting. Given the World Health Organization's warning against a "post antibiotic era", health-care providers are at a critical standpoint to find a "balance" between safe and effective ESBL-PE treatment and avoidance of inducing further resistance mechanisms. The aim of the review is to summarize the updated published knowledge in an attempt to answer basic everyday clinical questions on how to proceed to effective and the best ESBL-PE treatment options based on the existing published data.