First name
Jonathan
Middle name
J
Last name
Edwards

Title

Sex Differences in Left Ventricular Assist Device-related Emergency Department Encounters in the United States.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1445-1455

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1532-8414

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the profiles and outcomes of ambulatory patients on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support who present to the emergency department (ED).

METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 57,200 LVAD-related ED patient encounters from the 2010 to 2018 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. International Classification of Diseases Clinical Modification, Ninth Revision and Tenth Revision, codes identified patients aged 18 years or older with LVADs and associated primary and comorbidity diagnoses. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were stratified by sex and compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of hospital admission and death. Female patient encounters comprised 27.2% of ED visits and occurred at younger ages and more frequently with obesity and depression (all P < .01). There were no sex differences in presentation for device complication, stroke, infection, or heart failure (all P > .05); however, female patient encounters were more often respiratory- and genitourinary or gynecological related (both P < .01). After adjustment for age group, diabetes, depression, and hypertension, male patient encounters had a 38% increased odds of hospital admission (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.58), but there was no sex difference in the adjusted odds of death (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.45).

CONCLUSIONS: Patient encounters of females on LVAD support have significantly different comorbidities and outcomes compared with males. Further inquiry into these sex differences is imperative to improve long-term outcomes.

DOI

10.1016/j.cardfail.2022.05.005

Alternate Title

J Card Fail

PMID

35644307

Title

Novel Risk Model to Predict Emergency Department Associated Mortality for Patients Supported With a Ventricular Assist Device: The Emergency Department-Ventricular Assist Device Risk Score.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e020942

Date Published

2022 Jan 13

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> The past decade has seen tremendous growth in patients with ambulatory ventricular assist devices. We sought to identify patients that present to the emergency department (ED) at the highest risk of death. <strong>Methods and Results</strong> This retrospective analysis of ED encounters from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample includes 2010 to 2017. Using a random sampling of patient encounters, 80% were assigned to development and 20% to validation cohorts. A risk model was derived from independent predictors of mortality. Each patient encounter was assigned to 1 of 3 groups based on risk score. A total of 44&nbsp;042 ED ventricular assist device patient encounters were included. The majority of patients were male (73.6%), &lt;65&nbsp;years old (60.1%), and 29% presented with bleeding, stroke, or device complication. Independent predictors of mortality during the ED visit or subsequent admission included age ≥65&nbsp;years (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-4.6), primary diagnoses (stroke [OR, 19.4; 95% CI, 13.1-28.8], device complication [OR, 10.1; 95% CI, 6.5-16.7], cardiac [OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.7-6.1], infection [OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.5-8.9]), and blood transfusion (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-4.0), whereas history of hypertension was protective (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). The risk score predicted mortality areas under the curve of 0.78 and 0.71 for development and validation. Encounters in the highest risk score strata had a 16-fold higher mortality compared with the lowest risk group (15.8% versus 1.0%). <strong>Conclusions</strong> We present a novel risk score and its validation for predicting mortality of patients with ED ventricular assist devices, a high-risk, and growing, population.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.020942

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35023355

Title

Asymmetric septal edema masking as hypertrophy in an infant with COVID-19 myocarditis.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

101464

Date Published

2021 Nov 22

ISSN Number

1058-9813

Abstract

<p>Cardiac disease in pediatric patients due to coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) include myocarditis and multisystem inflammatory syndrome, both of which can present with a broad range in severity. Here we describe an infant with COVID-19 causing fulminant myocarditis with inotrope-resistant acute heart failure requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The patient demonstrated an atypical finding of localized septal thickening suggestive of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, but the diagnosis of myocarditis was confirmed by cardiac MRI. Serial echocardiography illustrated complete resolution of septal hypertrophy and normalized cardiac function. The current report highlights the potential severity of COVID-19 associated myocarditis, the potential for recovery, and the utility of cardiac MRI in confirming the mechanism.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ppedcard.2021.101464

Alternate Title

Prog Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

34840488

Title

Impact of Age on Emergency Resource Utilization and Outcomes in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Supported with a Ventricular Assist Device.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 03

ISSN Number

1538-943X

Abstract

<p>There are minimal data describing outcomes in ambulatory pediatric and young adult ventricular assist device (VAD)-supported patient populations. We performed a retrospective analysis of encounter-level data from 2006 to 2017 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to compare emergency department (ED) resource utilization and outcomes for pediatric (≤18 years, n = 494) to young adult (19-29 years, n = 2,074) VAD-supported patient encounters. Pediatric encounters were more likely to have a history of congenital heart disease (11.3% vs. 4.8%). However, Pediatric encounters had lower admission/transfer rates (37.8% vs. 57.8%) and median charges ($3,334 (IQR $1,473-$19,818) vs. $13,673 ($3,331-$45,884)) (all p &lt; 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression modeling revealed that age itself was not a predictor of admission, instead high acuity primary diagnoses and medical complexity were: (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals): cardiac (3.0; 1.6-5.4), infection (3.4; 1.7-6.5), bleeding (3.9; 1.7-8.8), device complication (7.2; 2.7-18.9), and ≥1 chronic comorbidity (4.1; 2.5-6.7). In this largest study to date describing ED resource use and outcomes for pediatric and young adult VAD-supported patients, we found that, rather than age, high acuity presentations and comorbidities were primary drivers of clinical outcomes. Thus, reducing morbidity in this population should target comorbidities and early recognition of VAD-related complications.</p>

DOI

10.1097/MAT.0000000000001603

Alternate Title

ASAIO J

PMID

34743138

Title

Mental Health Disorders and Emergency Resource Use and Outcomes in Ventricular Assist Device Supported Patients.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jun 02

ISSN Number

1097-6744

Abstract

<p>There are limited data describing the prevalence of mental health disorders (MHDOs) in patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs), or associations between MHDOs and resource use or outcomes. We used the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample administrative database to analyze 44,041 ED encounters for VAD-supported adults from 2010 to 2017, to assess the relationship between MHDOs and outcomes in this population. MHDO diagnoses were present for 23% of encounters, and were associated with higher charges and rates of admission, but lower mortality.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ahj.2021.05.018

Alternate Title

Am Heart J

PMID

34089695

Title

An Increasing Burden of Disease: Emergency Department Visits Among Patients With Ventricular Assist Devices From 2010 to 2017.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e018035

Date Published

2021 Feb 05

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p>Background With a growing population of patients supported by ventricular assist devices (VADs) and the improvement in survival of this patient population, understanding the healthcare system burden is critical to improving outcomes. Thus, we sought to examine national estimates of VAD-related emergency department (ED) visits and characterize their demographic, clinical, and outcomes profile. Additionally, we tested the hypotheses that resource use increased and mortality improved over time. Methods and Results This retrospective database analysis uses encounter-level data from the 2010 to 2017 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. The primary outcome was mortality. From 2010 to 2017, &gt;880&nbsp;million ED visits were evaluated, with 44&nbsp;042 VAD-related ED visits identified. The annual mean visits were 5505 (SD 4258), but increased 16-fold from 2010 to 2017 (824 versus 13&nbsp;155). VAD-related ED visits frequently resulted in admission (72%) and/or death (3.0%). Median inflation-adjusted charges were $25&nbsp;679 (interquartile range, $7450, $63&nbsp;119) per encounter. The most common primary diagnoses were cardiac (22%), and almost 30% of encounters were because of bleeding, stroke, or device complications. From 2010 to 2017, admission and mortality decreased from 82% to 71% and 3.4% to 2.4%, respectively ( for trends &lt;0.001, both). Conclusions We present the first study using national-level data to characterize the growing ED resource use and financial burden of patients supported by VAD. During the past decade, admission and mortality rates decreased but remain substantial; in 2017 ≈1 in every 40 VAD ED encounters resulted in death, making it critical that clinical decision-making be optimized for patients with VAD to maximize good outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.018035

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

33543642

Title

Impact and predictors of positive response to desensitization in pediatric heart transplant candidates.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1206-1213

Date Published

2019 Nov

ISSN Number

1557-3117

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Desensitization, the process of reducing anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in sensitized patients awaiting heart transplantation (HT), has unclear efficacy in pediatric HT candidates.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Pediatric HT candidates listed at our institution between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Sensitization was defined as the calculated panel reactive antibody (cPRA) ≥ 10% with ≥ 1 a strong positive antibody. The desensitization response was defined as a ≥ 25% reduction in the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) for ≥ 90% of the strong positive antibodies on follow-up panel reactive antibody (PRA) testing before waitlist removal, HT, or death (data available for 13 patients).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The HT candidates were categorized as sensitized receiving desensitization therapy (ST, n = 14), sensitized not receiving therapy (SNT, n = 18), or non-sensitized (n = 55). A desensitization response was observed in 8 (62%) of the ST upon repeat PRA testing, with the ST responders receiving more doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) (8 vs 2, p &lt; 0.05). The anti-HLA class I antibodies were particularly resistant for non-responders (p = 1.9 × 10). The combination of homograft and ventricular assist device was more sensitizing than either alone (p = 3.1 × 10). However, these sensitization risk factors did not impact the desensitization response. The ST was associated with a higher likelihood of remaining listed and a longer waitlist time without substantially impacting the HT rate, waitlist mortality, or early post-HT outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Most ST patients had a favorable response to desensitization, with a dose-dependent response observed for IVIG. The anti-HLA class likely impacts the ST response, whereas traditional sensitization risk factors had no impact on the response.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.healun.2019.08.018

Alternate Title

J. Heart Lung Transplant.

PMID

31672220

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