First name
Nandita
Last name
Mitra

Title

Association of a Sweetened Beverage Tax With Soda Consumption in High School Students.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 18

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Sweetened beverage taxes are one policy approach to reduce intake of added sugars. Soda is the leading source of added sugars in the US diet, but few studies have examined how such taxes influence sweetened beverage intake in youth.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To estimate the association between the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, beverage tax and adolescent soda intake.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This economic evaluation of school district-level Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System data from September 2013 to December 2019 compared weekly soda intake in high school students in Philadelphia, a city with a sweetened beverage tax, with that in 7 comparison cities without beverage taxes. Difference-in-differences regression modeling was used to estimate change in soda intake in Philadelphia compared with control cities. Secondary analyses compared 100% juice and milk intake to explore potential substitution associations. Subgroup analyses evaluated differences by race and ethnicity and weight status (obesity and overweight or obesity). Analyses were performed between August 20 and October 20, 2020. School districts that had weighted data and a survey question on weekly soda intake from 2013 to 2019 were included. The study included high school students, grades 9 to 12, in school districts participating in the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System from 2013 to 2019.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Implementation of a sweetened beverage tax in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in January 2017.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Reported weekly servings of soda, 100% juice, and milk.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 86 928 participants (weighted mean [SD] age, 15.8 [1.3] years; 49% female) from 8 US cities (including Philadelphia) were included. Before the tax, adolescents in the 7 comparison cities had a mean intake of 4 servings of soda per week compared with 5.4 servings per week in Philadelphia. Philadelphia's tax was associated with a reduction of 0.81 servings of soda per week (95% CI, -1.48 to -0.14 servings; P = .02) 2 years after tax implementation. There was no significant difference in 100% juice or milk intake, although Philadelphia adolescents consumed more juice than those in nontaxed cities. In subgroup analyses, the tax was associated with a reduction of 1.13 servings per week in Hispanic/Latinx adolescents (95% CI, -2.04 to -0.23 servings; P = .01) and 1.2 servings per week in adolescents with obesity (95% CI, -2.33 to -0.13 servings; P = .03).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>This economic evaluation found that a sweetened beverage tax was associated with a reduction in soda intake among adolescents, providing evidence that such taxes can improve dietary behaviors.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.3991

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

34661612

Title

The impact of disease-related knowledge on perceptions of stigma among patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e0258143

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

1932-6203

Abstract

<p>Most patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection perceive some degree of disease-related stigma. Misunderstandings about diseases may contribute to disease-related stigma. The objective of this study was to evaluate patient-level knowledge about HCV infection transmission and natural history and its association with HCV-related stigma among HCV-infected patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study among 265 patients with HCV in Philadelphia using the HCV Stigma Scale and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) Hepatitis C Follow-up Survey (2001-2008). The association between HCV knowledge and HCV-related stigma was evaluated via linear regression. Overall knowledge about HCV transmission and natural history was high, with &gt;80% of participants answering ≥9 of 11 items correctly (median number of correct responses, 9 [82%]), HCV-related knowledge was similar between HIV/HCV-coinfected and HCV-monoinfected participants (p = 0.30). A higher level of HCV-related knowledge was associated with greater perceived HCV-related stigma (β, 2.34 ([95% CI, 0.51-4.17]; p = 0.013). Results were similar after adjusting for age, race, ethnicity, HIV status, education level, stage of HCV management, time since diagnosis, and history of injection drug use. In this study, increased HCV-related knowledge was associated with greater perceptions of HCV stigma. Clinicians may consider allotting time to address common misconceptions about HCV when educating patients about HCV infection, which may counterbalance the stigmatizing impact of greater HCV-related knowledge.</p>

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0258143

Alternate Title

PLoS One

PMID

34610030

Title

Determinants of Stigma among Patients with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 05

ISSN Number

1365-2893

Abstract

<p>Stigma around hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important and understudied barrier to HCV treatment and elimination. The determinants of HCV-related stigma, including the impacts of stage of HCV treatment (i.e., spontaneously-cleared; diagnosed, untreated; previously treated, not cured; currently being treated; treated, cured) and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), remain unknown. To address these gaps, we conducted a cross-sectional study among patients with a history of HCV infection (n=270) at outpatient clinics in Philadelphia from July 2018 - May 2019. We evaluated stigma using the validated HCV Stigma Scale, adapted from the Berger HIV Stigma Scale. Associations among HCV-related stigma and hypothesized demographic, behavioral, and clinical risk factors were evaluated by multivariable linear regression. Most participants (95.5%) experienced HCV-related stigma. Mean stigma scores did not differ significantly between HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected participants (P=0.574). However, we observed significant interactions between HIV status and multiple determinants; therefore, we stratified analyses by HIV status. Among HIV/HCV-coinfected participants, previous HCV treatment without cure, female gender, Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, and some college education were significantly associated with higher HCV-stigma scores. An annual income of $10,000-$40,000 was associated with significantly lower stigma scores. No significant associations were observed among HCV-monoinfected participants. We found that most participants experienced stigma associated with HCV diagnosis. While stigma scores were similar between HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected participants, the determinants associated with HCV stigma differed by HIV status. Understanding how experiences of stigma differs between HCV-monoinfected and HIV/HCV-coinfected patients may aid in the development of targeted interventions to address the HCV epidemic.</p>

DOI

10.1111/jvh.13343

Alternate Title

J. Viral Hepat.

PMID

32500618

Title

All-Cause Mortality Among Children in the US Foster Care System, 2003-2016.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Apr 20

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p>Children in foster care have worse medical and behavioral health than children in the general population. This is influenced by multiple factors, including a high incidence of poverty, exposure to trauma, and chronic medical conditions. Despite known differences in health, less is known regarding differences in mortality. In this cross-sectional study, we compared mortality rates and trends for children in the US foster care system with those in the general population for the 2003-2016 time period.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0715

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

32310278

Title

Impact of Chlorhexidine Baths on Suspected Sepsis and Bloodstream Infections in Hospitalized Neonates in Zambia.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Apr 15

ISSN Number

1878-3511

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Sepsis is the leading cause of infectious morbidity and mortality among hospitalized neonates. In high-resource pediatric and adult intensive care units, use of aqueous chlorhexidine (CHG) solution has been associated with reduced risk of bloodstream infections (BSI).</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To assess the impact of bathing of neonates with 2% CHG on BSI, suspected sepsis, and mortality in a low-income country neonatal care unit.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Sepsis Prevention in Neonates in Zambia (SPINZ) study, a prospective observational cohort study performed at a large public referral hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. The SPINZ study assessed the impact of an infection control bundle (consisting of alcohol hand rub, SMS hygiene reminders, enhanced environmental cleaning, and CHG baths for babies ≥1.5 kg) on sepsis, BSI, and all-cause mortality. Episodic shortages in study staffing resulted in some enrolled babies not receiving a CHG bath. Using Longitudinal Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Cox proportional hazards regression to adjust for observed confounding, we estimated the causal effect of receiving a CHG bath within the first 3 days of life on suspected sepsis, BSI, and death among inborn babies enrolled during the study implementation and intervention phases.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The majority of inborn, enrolled babies ≥1.5 kg received a CHG bath within 3 days of NICU admission (864 of 1233, 70%). We found that CHG bathing reduced the hazard rate of BSI among inborn babies ≥1.5 kg by a factor of 0.58 (p = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.31, 1.11), corresponding to an absolute risk reduction of 9.6 percentage points within a week of admission (p = 0.002, 95% CI: 3.4-15.7 percentage points). We did not find a statistically significant effect of CHG bathing on culture-negative sepsis (p = 0.54) or death (p = 0.85).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>In our single center study, CHG bathing at admission was associated with a reduced risk of BSI due to a pathogenic organism after adjusting for potential confounding. Our results suggest that CHG may be an effective intervention for preventing neonatal sepsis in high-risk, low-income country settings.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.043

Alternate Title

Int. J. Infect. Dis.

PMID

32304821

Title

Validation of a modified Berger HIV stigma scale for use among patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e0228471

Date Published

2020

ISSN Number

1932-6203

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Stigma around hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important and understudied barrier to HCV prevention, treatment, and elimination. To date, no validated instrument exists to measure patients' experiences of HCV stigma. This study aimed to revise the Berger (2001) HIV stigma scale and evaluate its psychometric properties among patients with HCV infection.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The Berger HIV stigma scale was revised to ask about HCV and administered to patients with HCV (n = 270) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Scale reliability was evaluated as internal consistency by calculating Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to evaluate construct validity by comparing item clustering to the Berger HIV stigma scale subscales. Item response theory was employed to further evaluate individual items and to calibrate items for simulated computer adaptive testing sessions in order to identify potential shortened instruments.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The revised HCV Stigma Scale was found to have good reliability (α = 0.957). After excluding items for low loadings, the exploratory factor analysis indicated good construct validity with 85% of items loading on pre-defined factors. Analyses strongly suggested the predominance of an underlying unidimensional factor solution, which yielded a 33-item scale after items were removed for low loading and differential item functioning. Adaptive simulations indicated that the scale could be substantially shortened without detectable information loss.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The 33-item HCV Stigma Scale showed sufficient reliability and construct validity. We also conducted computer adaptive testing simulations and identified shortened six- and three-item scale alternatives that performed comparably to the original 40-item scale.</p>

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0228471

Alternate Title

PLoS ONE

PMID

32023310

Title

The Influence of Comorbid Mood and Anxiety Disorders on Outcomes of Pediatric Patients Hospitalized for Pneumonia.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

135-42

Date Published

2016 Mar

ISSN Number

2154-1663

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Mood and anxiety disorders are associated with greater inpatient care utilization in children with chronic illness. We sought to investigate the association of mood or anxiety disorders and outcomes for hospitalized pediatric patients, using pneumonia as a model.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of pneumonia hospitalizations in patients 5 to 20 years old, using the nationally representative Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's 2012 Kids' Inpatient Database. We used multivariable logistic and linear regression models stratified by age group to determine the independent association of mood or anxiety disorders with complications and length of stay, adjusted for clinical, demographic, and hospital characteristics.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 34,794 pneumonia hospitalizations, 3.5% involved a patient with a comorbid mood or anxiety disorder. Overall incidence of complications was 13.1%. Mean length of stay was 4.5 days. In adjusted models, comorbid mood or anxiety disorders were associated with greater odds of pneumonia complications in school-aged children (odds ratio 1.80; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.71) and adolescents (odds ratio 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-2.02). Hospitalizations with an associated mood or anxiety disorder were longer than those without, by 11.2% in school-aged children and 13.6% in adolescents (P &lt; .001). The association of mood and anxiety disorders with longer hospital stay was not modified by the presence of pneumonia complications.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In pediatric patients hospitalized for pneumonia, a comorbid mood or anxiety disorder is associated with greater odds of complications and longer hospital stay. The presence of pneumonia complications did not influence the relationship between mood or anxiety disorders and length of stay.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2015-0177

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

26908821

Title

Disparities in the evaluation and diagnosis of abuse among infants with traumatic brain injury.

Year of Publication

2010

Number of Pages

408-14

Date Published

2010 Sep

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To evaluate in a national database the association of race and socioeconomic status with radiographic evaluation and subsequent diagnosis of child abuse after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infants.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective study of infants with non-motor vehicle-associated TBI who were admitted to 39 pediatric hospitals from January 2004 to June 2008. Logistic regression controlling for age, type, and severity of TBI and the presence of other injuries was performed to examine the association of race and socioeconomic status with the principal outcomes of radiographic evaluation for suspected abuse and diagnosis of abuse. Regression coefficients were transformed to probabilities.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>After adjustment for type and severity of TBI, age, and other injuries, publicly insured/uninsured infants were more likely to have had skeletal surveys performed than were privately insured infants (81% vs 59%). The difference in skeletal survey performance for infants with public or no insurance versus private insurance was greater among white (82% vs 53%) infants than among black (85% vs 75%) or Hispanic (72% vs 55%) infants (P=.022). Although skeletal surveys were performed in a smaller proportion of white than black or Hispanic infants, the adjusted probability for diagnosis of abuse among infants evaluated with a skeletal survey was higher among white infants (61%) than among black (51%) or Hispanic (53%) infants (P=.009).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>National data suggest continued biases in the evaluation for abusive head trauma. The conflicting observations of fewer skeletal surveys among white infants and higher rates of diagnosis among those screened elicit concern for overevaluation in some infants (black or publicly insured/uninsured) or underevaluation in others (white or privately insured).</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2010-0031

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

20713477

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