First name
Genevieve
Middle name
P
Last name
Kanter

Title

Association of State Medicaid Expansion With Hospital Community Benefit Spending.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e205529

Date Published

2020 May 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Medicaid expansion was widely expected to alleviate the financial stresses faced by hospitals by providing additional revenue in the form of Medicaid reimbursements from patients previously receiving uncompensated care. Among nonprofit hospitals, which receive tax-exempt status in part because of their provision of uncompensated care, Medicaid expansion could have released hospital funds toward other community benefit activities.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To examine changes in nonprofit hospital spending on community benefit activities after Medicaid expansion.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cohort study used difference-in-differences analysis of 1666 US nonprofit hospitals that filed Internal Revenue Service Form 990 Schedule H detailing their community benefit expenditures between 2011 and 2017. The analysis was conducted from February to September 2019.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>State Medicaid expansion between 2011 and 2017.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Percentage of hospital operating expenditures attributable to charity care and subsidized care, bad debt (ie, unreimbursed spending for care of patients who did not apply for charity care), unreimbursed Medicaid spending, noncare direct community spending, and total community benefit spending.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 1478 hospitals in the sample in 2011, nearly half (653 [44.2%]) were small hospitals with fewer than 100 beds, and nearly 70% of hospitals (1023 [69.2%]) were in urban areas. Among the 1666 nonprofit hospitals, Medicaid expansion was associated with a decrease in spending on charity care and subsidized care (-0.68 [95% CI, -0.99 to -0.37] percentage points from a baseline mean [SD] of 3.6% [4.0%] of total hospital expenditures; P &lt; .001) and in bad debt (-0.17 [95% CI, -0.32 to -0.01] percentage points). There was an increase in unreimbursed spending attributable to caring for Medicaid patients (0.85 [95% CI, 0.60 to 1.10] percentage points; P = .04), which canceled out uncompensated care savings from the expansion. Noncare direct community expenditures decreased overall (-0.24 [95% CI, -0.48 to 0.00] percentage points; P = .049). Direct community expenditures remained more stable in small hospitals (-0.07 [95% CI, -0.20 to 0.05] percentage points; P =.26) compared with large hospitals (-0.37 [95% CI, -0.86 to 0.12] percentage points; P = .14) and in nonurban hospitals (0.02 [95% CI, -0.09 to 0.14] percentage points; P = .70) compared with urban hospitals (-0.36 [95% CI, -0.73 to 0.01] percentage points; P = .06).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this study, Medicaid expansion was associated with a decrease in nonprofit hospitals' burden of providing uncompensated care, but this financial relief was not redirected toward spending on other community benefits.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.5529

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

32469411

Title

Association of a Targeted Population Health Management Intervention with Hospital Admissions and Bed-Days for Medicaid-Enrolled Children.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

e1918306

Date Published

2019 Dec 02

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>As the proportion of children with Medicaid coverage increases, many pediatric health systems are searching for effective strategies to improve management of this high-risk population and reduce the need for inpatient resources.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To estimate the association of a targeted population health management intervention for children eligible for Medicaid with changes in monthly hospital admissions and bed-days.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This quality improvement study, using difference-in-differences analysis, deployed integrated team interventions in an academic pediatric health system with 31 in-network primary care practices among children enrolled in Medicaid who received care at the health system's hospital and primary care practices. Data were collected from January 2014 to June 2017. Data analysis took place from January 2018 to June 2019.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Targeted deployment of integrated team interventions, each including electronic medical record registry development and reporting alongside a common longitudinal quality improvement framework to distribute workflow among interdisciplinary clinicians and community health workers.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Trends in monthly inpatient admissions and bed-days (per 1000 beneficiaries) during the preimplementation period (ie, January 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015) compared with the postimplementation period (ie, July 1, 2015, to June 30, 2017).</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 25 460 children admitted to the hospital's health system during the study period, 8418 (33.1%) (3869 [46.0%] girls; 3308 [39.3%] aged ≤1 year; 5694 [67.6%] black) were from in-network practices, and 17 042 (67.9%) (7779 [45.7%] girls; 6031 [35.4%] aged ≤1 year; 7167 [41.2%] black) were from out-of-network practices. Compared with out-of-network patients, in-network patients experienced a decrease of 0.39 (95% CI, 0.10-0.68) monthly admissions per 1000 beneficiaries (P = .009) and 2.20 (95% CI, 0.90-3.49) monthly bed-days per 1000 beneficiaries (P = .001). Accounting for disproportionate growth in the number of children with medical complexity who were in-network to the health system, this group experienced a monthly decrease in admissions of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.13-0.95) per 1000 beneficiaries (P = .01) and in bed-days of 3.25 (95% CI, 1.46-5.04) per 1000 beneficiaries (P = .001) compared with out-of-network patients. Annualized, these differences could translate to a reduction of 3600 bed-days for a population of 93 000 children eligible for Medicaid.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this quality improvement study, a population health management approach providing targeted integrated care team interventions for children with medical and social complexity being cared for in a primary care network was associated with a reduction in service utilization compared with an out-of-network comparison group. Standardizing the work of care teams with quality improvement methods and integrated information technology tools may provide a scalable strategy for health systems to mitigate risk from a growing population of children who are eligible for Medicaid.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.18306

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

31880799

Title

Growth Of Public Coverage Among Working Families In The Private Sector.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1132-1139

Date Published

2019 Jul

ISSN Number

1544-5208

Abstract

<p>Working families have increasingly enrolled their children in Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program in recent years. Parents' place of employment affects the availability and cost of family health insurance, making it a determinant of pediatric public insurance enrollment. We examined that enrollment in the period 2008-16 in families working full time and earning more than 100&nbsp;percent of the federal poverty level at three types of employers. Among low-income families (100-199&nbsp;percent of poverty), children's public health insurance coverage was highest for those with parents employed at small private firms, increasing from 53&nbsp;percent to 79&nbsp;percent, while the public insurance coverage rate also increased among children with parents working for large private firms (from 45&nbsp;percent to 69&nbsp;percent). Among moderate-income families (200-299&nbsp;percent of poverty) working at small private firms, public coverage increased from 21&nbsp;percent to 64&nbsp;percent. Increases in the number of working families with pediatric public insurance were driven by employees of large private firms. Maintaining high pediatric insurance coverage rates will require policies that recognize the changing role of public insurance for working families as the cost of employer-based coverage grows.</p>

DOI

10.1377/hlthaff.2018.05286

Alternate Title

Health Aff (Millwood)

PMID

31260364

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