First name
Shobha
Middle name
S
Last name
Natarajan

Title

Echocardiographic strain analysis reflects impaired ventricular function in youth with pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Oct 03

ISSN Number

1540-8175

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Strain analysis with speckle-tracking echocardiography shows promise as a screening tool for silent myocardial dysfunction in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE). We compared left ventricular (LV) systolic deformation (measured by strain) in children and adolescents with pSLE to controls, and assessed the relationship between strain, disease activity, and other noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Twenty pSLE subjects ages 9-21 underwent comprehensive cardiovascular testing, including 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), peripheral endothelial function testing, pulse wave velocity and analysis, and carotid ultrasound. Longitudinal apical-4 chamber (LS ) and midpoint circumferential strain (CS ) were compared to that of 70 healthy controls using multivariable linear regression. Among pSLE subjects, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate relationships between global longitudinal or circumferential strain and other measures of cardiovascular health.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Average SLE disease duration was 3.2&nbsp;years (standard deviation [SD] 2.1). 2/20 pSLE subjects had persistent disease activity, and only one met criteria for hypertension by ABPM. LS was significantly reduced in pSLE subjects compared to controls (mean -18.3 [SD 3.2] vs -21.8% [SD 2.2], P-value &lt;.001). There was no significant difference in CS (-24.8 [SD 3.7] vs -25.7% [SD 3.4], P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.29). Among pSLE subjects, decreased nocturnal blood pressure dipping on ABPM was associated with reduced global circumferential strain (r -0.59, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.01).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Longitudinal myocardial deformation is impaired in pSLE patients despite clinical remission and may represent early myocardial damage. Strain analysis should be considered in addition to standard echocardiographic assessment during follow-up of patients with pSLE.</p>

DOI

10.1111/echo.14872

PMID

33009676

Title

Standardization of the Perioperative Management for Neonates Undergoing the Norwood Operation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Related Heart Defects.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 16

ISSN Number

1529-7535

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>In-hospital complications after the Norwood operation for single ventricle heart defects account for the majority of morbidity and mortality. Inpatient care variation occurs within and across centers. This multidisciplinary quality improvement project standardized perioperative management in a large referral center.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Quality improvement project.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>High volume cardiac center, tertiary care children's hospital.</p>

<p><strong>PATIENTS: </strong>Neonates undergoing Norwood operation.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTIONS: </strong>The quality improvement team developed and implemented a clinical guideline (preoperative admission to 48 hr after surgery). The composite process metric, Guideline Adherence Score, contained 13 recommendations in the guideline that reflected consistent care for all patients.</p>

<p><strong>MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: </strong>One-hundred two consecutive neonates who underwent Norwood operation (January 1, 2013, to July 12, 2016) before guideline implementation were compared with 50 consecutive neonates after guideline implementation (July 13, 2016, to May 4, 2018). No preguideline operations met the goal Guideline Adherence Score. In the first 6 months after guideline implementation, 10 of 12 operations achieved goal Guideline Adherence Score and continued through implementation, reaching 100% for the last 10 operations. Statistical process control analysis demonstrated less variability and decreased hours of postoperative mechanical ventilation and cardiac ICU length of stay during implementation. There were no statistically significant differences in major hospital complications or in 30-day mortality. A higher percentage of patients were extubated by postoperative day 2 after guideline implementation (67% [30/47] vs 41% [41/99], respectively; p = 0.01). Of these patients, reintubation within 72 hours of extubation significantly decreased after guideline implementation (0% [0/30] vs 17% [7/41] patients, respectively; p = 0.02).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>This initiative successfully implemented a standardized perioperative care guideline for neonates undergoing the Norwood operation at a large center. Positive statistical process control centerline shifts in Guideline Adherence Score, length of postoperative mechanical ventilation, and cardiac ICU length of stay were demonstrated. A higher percentage were successfully extubated by postoperative day 2. Establishment of standard processes can lead to best practices to decrease major adverse events.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PCC.0000000000002478

Alternate Title

Pediatr Crit Care Med

PMID

32701749

Title

Nocturnal blood pressure dipping as a marker of endothelial function and subclinical atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

129

Date Published

2020 Jun 03

ISSN Number

1478-6362

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Loss of the normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure (BP), known as non-dipping, is a potential measure of cardiovascular risk identified by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We sought to determine whether non-dipping is a useful marker of abnormal vascular function and subclinical atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Twenty subjects 9-19 years of age with pSLE underwent ABPM, peripheral endothelial function testing, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity/analysis for aortic stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness. We assessed the prevalence of non-dipping and other ABPM abnormalities. Pearson or Spearman rank correlation tests were used to evaluate relationships between nocturnal BP dipping, BP load (% of abnormally elevated BPs over 24-h), and vascular outcome measures.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The majority (75%) of subjects had inactive disease, with mean disease duration of 3.2 years (± 2.1). The prevalence of non-dipping was 50%, which occurred even in the absence of nocturnal or daytime hypertension. Reduced diastolic BP dipping was associated with poorer endothelial function (r 0.5, p = 0.04). Intima-media thickness was significantly greater in subjects with non-dipping (mean standard deviation score of 3.0 vs 1.6, p = 0.02). In contrast, higher systolic and diastolic BP load were associated with increased aortic stiffness (ρ 0.6, p = 0.01 and ρ 0.7, p &lt; 0.01, respectively), but not with endothelial function or intima-media thickness.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>In a pSLE cohort with low disease activity, isolated nocturnal BP non-dipping is prevalent and associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic changes. In addition to hypertension assessment, ABPM has a promising role in risk stratification and understanding heterogeneous mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in pSLE.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s13075-020-02224-w

Alternate Title

Arthritis Res. Ther.

PMID

32493472

Title

Evaluating the utility of routine screening catheterisation before interstage discharge of infants with single-ventricle physiology.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-7

Date Published

2019 May 30

ISSN Number

1467-1107

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Interstage mortality causes are often unknown in infants with shunt-dependent univentricular defects. For 2 years, screening catheterisation was encouraged before neonatal discharge to determine if routine evaluation improved interstage outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective single-centre review of home monitoring programme from December, 2010 to June, 2012. Composite scores were created for physical examination/echocardiography risk factors; catheterisation risk factors; and interstage adverse events. Composite scores were compared between usual care and screening catheterisation groups. The ability of each risk factor composite to predict interstage adverse events, individually and in combination, was assessed with sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic curves.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>There were 27 usual care and 32 screening catheterisation patients. There were no significant differences between groups except rates of catheterisation before discharge (29.6 versus 100%, p &lt; 0.001). Usual care patients who underwent catheterisation for clinical indications had higher intervention rates (37.5 versus 3.1%, p = 0.004). Physical examination/echocardiography risk factor frequency was similar, but usual care patients with catheterisation had a higher catheterisation risk factor frequency. Interstage adverse event frequency was similar (48.2 versus 53.1%, p = 0.7). For interstage adverse event prediction, sensitivity for the physical examination/echocardiography, catheterisation, and either risk factor composites was 53.3, 72, and 80%, respectively; specificity was 59, 60, and 48%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.56, 0.66, and 0.64.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Screening catheterisation evaluation offered slightly increased sensitivity and specificity, but no difference in interstage adverse event frequency. Given this small advantage versus known risks, screening catheterisations are no longer encouraged.</p>

DOI

10.1017/S1047951119000696

Alternate Title

Cardiol Young

PMID

31142394

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