First name
Christine
Middle name
E
Last name
Seidman

Title

Valsartan in early-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a randomized phase 2 trial.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Sep 23

ISSN Number

1546-170X

Abstract

<p>Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is often caused by pathogenic variants in sarcomeric genes and characterized by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and increased risk of heart failure and arrhythmias. There are no existing therapies to modify disease progression. In this study, we conducted a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of the angiotensin II receptor blocker valsartan in attenuating disease evolution in early HCM. In total, 178 participants with early-stage sarcomeric HCM were randomized (1:1) to receive valsartan (320 mg daily in adults; 80-160 mg daily in children) or placebo for 2 years ( NCT01912534 ). Standardized changes from baseline to year 2 in LV wall thickness, mass and volumes; left atrial volume; tissue Doppler diastolic and systolic velocities; and serum levels of high-sensitivity troponin T and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic protein were integrated into a single composite z-score as the primary outcome. Valsartan (n = 88) improved cardiac structure and function compared to placebo (n = 90), as reflected by an increase in the composite z-score (between-group difference +0.231, 95% confidence interval (+0.098, +0.364); P = 0.001), which met the primary endpoint of the study. Treatment was well-tolerated. These results indicate a key opportunity to attenuate disease progression in early-stage sarcomeric HCM with an accessible and safe medication.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41591-021-01505-4

Alternate Title

Nat Med

PMID

34556856

Title

Associations Between Female Sex, Sarcomere Variants and Clinical Outcomes in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Dec 07

ISSN Number

2574-8300

Abstract

<p><strong>Background&nbsp;</strong>- The impact of sex on phenotypic expression in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has not been well characterized in genotyped cohorts. <strong>Methods&nbsp;</strong>- Retrospective cohort study from an international registry of patients receiving care at experienced HCM centers. Sex-based differences in baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes were assessed. <strong>Results&nbsp;</strong>- Of 5,873 patients (3,788 genotyped), 2,226 (37.9%) were women. At baseline, women were older (49.0±19.9 vs. 42.9±18.4 years, p&lt;0.001) and more likely to have pathogenic/likely-pathogenic sarcomeric variants (SARC+; 51% vs 43%, p&lt;0.001) despite equivalent utilization of genetic testing. Age at diagnosis varied by sex and genotype despite similar distribution of causal genes. Women were 3.6 to 7.1 years older at diagnosis (p&lt;0.02) except for patients with variants where age at diagnosis was comparable for women and men (n=492; 34.8±19.2 vs 33.3±16.8 years, p=0.39). Over 7.7 median years of follow up, NYHA III-IV heart failure (HF) was more common in women (HR 1.87, CI 1.48-2.36, p&lt;0.001), after controlling for their higher burden of symptoms and outflow tract obstruction at baseline, reduced ejection fraction, SARC+, age and hypertension. All-cause mortality was increased in women (HR 1.50, CI 1.13-1.99, p&lt;0.01), but neither ICD utilization nor ventricular arrhythmia varied by sex. <strong>Conclusions&nbsp;</strong>- In HCM, women are older at diagnosis, partly modified by genetic substrate. Regardless of genotype, women were at higher risk of mortality and developing severe HF symptoms. This points to a sex-effect on long-term myocardial performance in HCM, which should be investigated further.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003062

Alternate Title

Circ Genom Precis Med

PMID

33284039

Title

Genetic Variants Associated with Cancer Therapy-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Apr 16

ISSN Number

1524-4539

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Cancer therapy-induced cardiomyopathy (CCM) is associated with cumulative drug exposures and pre-existing cardiovascular disorders. These parameters incompletely account for substantial inter-individual susceptibility to CCM. We hypothesized that rare variants in cardiomyopathy genes contribute to CCM.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We studied 213 CCM patients from three cohorts: retrospectively recruited adults with diverse cancers (n=99), prospectively phenotyped breast cancer adults (n=73) and prospectively phenotyped children with acute myeloid leukemia (n=41). Cardiomyopathy genes, including nine pre-specified genes were sequenced. The prevalence of rare variants was compared between CCM cohorts and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) participants (n=2053), healthy volunteers (n=445), and ancestry-matched reference population. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were assessed, stratified by genotypes. A prevalent CCM genotype was modeled in anthracycline-treated mice.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>CCM was diagnosed 0.4-9 years after chemotherapy; 90% of these patients received anthracyclines. Adult CCM patients had cardiovascular risk factors similar to the U.S.</p>

<p><strong>POPULATION: </strong>Among nine prioritized genes CCM patients had more rare protein-altering variants than comparative cohorts (p≤1.98e-04). Titin-truncating variants (TTNtv) predominated, occurring in 7.5% CCM patients versus 1.1% TCGA participants (p=7.36e-08), 0.7% healthy volunteers (p=3.42e-06), and 0.6% reference population (p=5.87e-14). Adult CCM patients with TTNtv experienced more heart failure and atrial fibrillation (p=0.003) and impaired myocardial recovery (p=0.03) than those without. Consistent with human data, anthracycline-treated TTNtv mice and isolated TTNtv cardiomyocytes showed sustained contractile dysfunction unlike wildtype (p=0.0004 and p&lt;0.002, respectively).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Unrecognized rare variants in cardiomyopathy-associated genes, particularly TTNtv, increased the risk for CCM in children and adults, and adverse cardiac events in adults. Genotype, along with cumulative chemotherapy dosage and traditional cardiovascular risk factors improves identification of cancer patients at highest risk for CCM.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT01173341; AAML1031; NCT01371981.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.037934

Alternate Title

Circulation

PMID

30987448

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.