First name
Molly
Last name
Hayes

Title

Antiviral Toxicities in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1600-6143

Abstract

Prophylaxis with valganciclovir (VGCV) is used routinely to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in at-risk pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, the rate and factors associated with toxicities in this population are not well-described. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children undergoing SOT at our hospital from January 2012 - June 2018. We evaluated the frequency of hematologic and renal toxicities from day 15 through 1-year post-SOT in relation to antiviral exposures, focused on VGCV prophylaxis. Marginal rate models were used to determine the risk of kidney injury and neutropenia in relation to VGCV prophylaxis. Among 281 SOTs, VGCV prophylaxis was administered on 20.1% of all follow-up days. The incidence rates of kidney injury, leukopenia, and neutropenia were significantly higher during VGCV prophylaxis compared to when no antiviral agents were given. Using multivariable marginal rate models, receipt of VGCV prophylaxis was associated with development of kidney injury (rate ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.65) and neutropenia (RR 4.82, 95% CI: 3.08-7.55). VGCV dosing did not impact the development of kidney injury or neutropenia. Toxicities are common with VGCV prophylaxis in pediatric SOT recipients.

DOI

10.1111/ajt.17171

Alternate Title

Am J Transplant

PMID

35971847

Title

Improving Vancomycin Stewardship in Critically Ill Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Inappropriate vancomycin use is common in children's hospitals. We report a quality improvement (QI) intervention to reduce vancomycin use in our tertiary care PICU.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We retrospectively quantified the prevalence of infections caused by organisms requiring vancomycin therapy, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), among patients with suspected bacterial infections. Guided by these data, we performed 3 QI interventions over a 3-year period, including (1) stakeholder education, (2) generation of a consensus-based guideline for empiric vancomycin use, and (3) implementation of this guideline through clinical decision support. Vancomycin use in days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient days was measured by using statistical process control charts. Balancing measures included frequency of bacteremia due to an organism requiring vancomycin not covered with empiric therapy, 30-day mortality, and cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal organ dysfunction.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 1276 episodes of suspected bacterial infection, a total of 19 cases of bacteremia (1.5%) due to organisms requiring vancomycin therapy were identified, including 6 MRSA bacteremias (0.5%). During the 3-year QI project, overall vancomycin DOT per 1000 patient days in the PICU decreased from a baseline mean of 182 DOT per 1000 patient days to 109 DOT per 1000 patient days (a 40% reduction). All balancing measures were unchanged, and all cases of MRSA bacteremia were treated empirically with vancomycin.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Our interventions reduced overall vancomycin use in the PICU without evidence of harm. Provider education and consensus building surrounding indications for empiric vancomycin use were key strategies.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-052165

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

35362066

Title

Updated Guidance on Use and Prioritization of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Treatment of COVID-19 in Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Feb 02

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Starting in November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued Emergency Use Authorizations (EUAs) for multiple novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, including bamlanivimab monotherapy (now revoked), bamlanivimab and etesivimab, casirivimab and imdevimab (REGEN-COV), and sotrovimab, for treatment or postexposure prophylaxis of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adolescents (≥12 years of age) and adults with certain high-risk conditions. Previous guidance is now updated based on new evidence and clinical experience.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacotherapy, and pediatric critical care medicine from 18 geographically diverse US institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on a review of the best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild, though more severe disease is occasionally observed. Evidence supporting risk stratification is incomplete. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated the benefit of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific monoclonal antibody therapies in adults, but data on safety and efficacy in children or adolescents are limited. Potential harms associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis are reportedly low in adults.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Based on evidence available as of August 31, 2021, the panel suggests a risk-based approach to administration of SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Therapy is suggested for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adolescents (≥12 years of age) at the highest risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Therapeutic decision-making about those at moderate risk of severe disease should be individualized. Use as postexposure prophylaxis could be considered for those at the highest risk who have a high-risk exposure but are not yet diagnosed with COVID-19. Clinicians and health systems should ensure safe and timely implementation of these therapeutics that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab124

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

35107571

Title

CMV infection and management among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e14220

Date Published

2022 Jan 06

ISSN Number

1399-3046

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, the impact of asymptomatic CMV infections (ie, DNAemia) on clinical outcomes is not well established.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study of children undergoing first SOT at our institution from January 2012 to June 2018. We evaluated the epidemiology of CMV infections and performed multivariable Cox regression to assess the association between CMV DNAemia without disease or CMV disease (syndrome or end-organ disease) on negative outcomes (death, re-transplantation, or moderate/severe rejection) within the first year after SOT.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 271 individuals, 43 (15.9%) developed ≥1 CMV infection during the first year after SOT. There were 56 unique CMV infections including 14 episodes of CMV disease. In 167 patients offered CMV prophylaxis, only 8 (4.8%) developed their first CMV DNAemia episode while on prophylaxis 32 developed CMV DNAemia after prophylaxis completion; only 1 episode of CMV disease occurred while on antiviral prophylaxis. When accounting for receipt of ATG, oral steroids, and number of immunosuppressives on a given day, CMV disease was more strongly associated with negative outcomes (Hazard Ratio (HR): 3.28, 95% CI: 0.73-14.64; p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.12) than CMV DNAemia without disease (HR 1.42, 95% CI: 0.19- 10.79; p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.74), although not to a statistically significant degree.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Most CMV infections occurred after completion of antiviral prophylaxis. CMV disease was more strongly associated with negative outcomes than asymptomatic CMV DNAemia and should be the focus of CMV prevention practices.</p>

DOI

10.1111/petr.14220

Alternate Title

Pediatr Transplant

PMID

34994041

Title

Incidence of CMV Infection and Disease and Adverse Events Associated with Antiviral Therapy in a Retrospective Cohort of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients at an Academic Children's Hospital.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jul 02

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality among transplant recipients; the epidemiology is less understood in pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) cohorts. Furthermore, there is a paucity of data related to CMV prophylactic and preemptive strategies.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A single-center retrospective observational cohort of allogeneic HCT recipients at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia January 1, 2004-December 31, 2017 was constructed. Subjects were followed for 180 days after transplant to determine whether they had CMV infection or disease. Data on antiviral therapy were collected as were outcomes of CMV disease and adverse events (AEs) related to the antiviral therapy.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Between January 2004 and March 2017, 345 allogeneic HCTs in 333 patients undergoing CMV surveillance testing were identified. CMV DNAemia was detected during the 180-day follow-up in 89 (25.8%) HCTs. CMV recipient-positive transplants were most likely to have CMV infection (47%). Infection rates were high for those receiving a CMV-specific prophylaxis regimen (50%). CMV DNAemia progressed to CMV disease 11.2% of the time. Of 224 subjects receiving CMV-specific prophylaxis, 19.2% experienced ≥1 AE. Of 53 receiving preemptive therapy during any CMV DNAemia episode, 32.1% experienced ≥1 AE.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>CMV infection is common in pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients. The CMV-specific prophylaxis regimen employed in this cohort did not effectively prevent DNAemia, progression to CMV disease was uncommon, and AEs from prophylaxis and preemptive therapy were frequent. Novel approaches that reduce the impact of CMV on pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients are needed.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab041

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34213545

Title

Initial Guidance on Use of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Treatment of COVID-19 in Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 03

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>In November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provided Emergency Use Authorizations (EUA) for two novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, bamlanivimab, and REGN-COV2 (casirivimab plus imdevimab), for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adolescents and adults in specified high-risk groups. This has challenged clinicians to determine the best approach to use of these products.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacy, pediatric intensive care medicine, and pediatric hematology from 29 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild and there is no high-quality evidence supporting any high risk groups. There is no evidence for safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, limited evidence of modest benefit in adults, and evidence for potential harm associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Based on evidence available as of December 20, 2020, the panel suggests against routine administration of monoclonal antibody therapy (bamlanivimab, or casirivimab and imdevimab), for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, including those designated by the FDA as at high risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Clinicians and health systems choosing to use these agents on an individualized basis should consider risk factors supported by pediatric-specific evidence, and ensure implementation of a system for safe and timely administration that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa175

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

33388760

Title

Multicenter interim guidance on use of antivirals for children with COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 12

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Although Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild infection in most children, a small proportion develop severe or critical illness. Data evaluating agents with potential antiviral activity continue to expand, such that updated guidance is needed regarding use of these agents in children.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Given the typically mild course of COVID-19 in children, supportive care alone is suggested for most cases. For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. A duration of 5 days is appropriate for most patients. The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa115

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32918548

Title

Multicenter initial guidance on use of antivirals for children with COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Apr 22

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Although Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild in nearly all children, a small proportion of pediatric patients develops severe or critical illness. Guidance is therefore needed regarding use of agents with potential activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in pediatrics.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 18 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Given the typically mild course of pediatric COVID-19, supportive care alone is suggested for the overwhelming majority of cases. The panel suggests a decision-making framework for antiviral therapy that weighs risks and benefits based on disease severity as indicated by respiratory support needs, with consideration on a case-by-case basis of potential pediatric risk factors for disease progression. If an antiviral is used, the panel suggests remdesivir as the preferred agent. Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available. Antivirals should preferably be used as part of a clinical trial if available.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For those rare children who develop severe or critical disease, this guidance offer an approach for decision-making regarding antivirals, informed by available data. As evidence continues to evolve rapidly, the need for updates to the guidance is anticipated.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa045

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32318706

Title

Treatment of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Infections in Children.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Dec 21

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>Infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly prevalent in children and are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Optimal treatment strategies for CRE infections continue to evolve. A lack of pediatric-specific comparative effectiveness data, uncertain pediatric dosing regimens for several agents, and a relative lack of new antibiotics with pediatric indications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) collectively present unique challenges for children. In this review, we provide a framework for antibiotic treatment of CRE infections in children, highlighting relevant microbiologic considerations and summarizing available data related to the evaluation of FDA-approved antibiotics (as of September 2019) with CRE activity, including carbapenems, ceftazidime-avibactam, meropenem-vaborbactam, imipenem/cilastatin-relebactam, polymyxins, tigecycline, eravacycline, and plazomicin.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piz085

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

31872226

Title

Mechanisms of antimicrobial-induced nephrotoxicity in children.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Aug 01

ISSN Number

1460-2091

Abstract

<p>Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is responsible for 20% to 60% of cases of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Antimicrobials are one of the most common classes of medications prescribed globally and also among the most common causes of nephrotoxicity. A broad range of antimicrobial agents have been associated with nephrotoxicity, but the features of kidney injury vary based on the agent, its mechanism of injury and the site of toxicity within the kidney. Distinguishing nephrotoxicity caused by an antimicrobial agent from other potential inciting factors is important to facilitate both early recognition of drug toxicity and prompt cessation of an offending drug, as well as to avoid unnecessary discontinuation of an innocuous therapy. This review will detail the different types of antimicrobial-induced nephrotoxicity: acute tubular necrosis, acute interstitial nephritis and obstructive nephropathy. It will also describe the mechanism of injury caused by specific antimicrobial agents and classes (vancomycin, aminoglycosides, polymyxins, antivirals, amphotericin B), highlight the toxicodynamics of these drugs and provide guidance on administration or monitoring practices that can mitigate toxicity, when known. Particular attention will be paid to paediatric patients, when applicable, in whom nephrotoxin exposure is an often-underappreciated cause of kidney injury.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jac/dkz325

Alternate Title

J. Antimicrob. Chemother.

PMID

31369087

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