First name
Hannah
Last name
Katcoff

Title

Sex Differences in Left Ventricular Assist Device-related Emergency Department Encounters in the United States.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1445-1455

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1532-8414

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the profiles and outcomes of ambulatory patients on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support who present to the emergency department (ED).

METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 57,200 LVAD-related ED patient encounters from the 2010 to 2018 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. International Classification of Diseases Clinical Modification, Ninth Revision and Tenth Revision, codes identified patients aged 18 years or older with LVADs and associated primary and comorbidity diagnoses. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were stratified by sex and compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of hospital admission and death. Female patient encounters comprised 27.2% of ED visits and occurred at younger ages and more frequently with obesity and depression (all P < .01). There were no sex differences in presentation for device complication, stroke, infection, or heart failure (all P > .05); however, female patient encounters were more often respiratory- and genitourinary or gynecological related (both P < .01). After adjustment for age group, diabetes, depression, and hypertension, male patient encounters had a 38% increased odds of hospital admission (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.58), but there was no sex difference in the adjusted odds of death (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.45).

CONCLUSIONS: Patient encounters of females on LVAD support have significantly different comorbidities and outcomes compared with males. Further inquiry into these sex differences is imperative to improve long-term outcomes.

DOI

10.1016/j.cardfail.2022.05.005

Alternate Title

J Card Fail

PMID

35644307

Title

Impact of Device Miniaturization on Insertable Cardiac Monitor Use in the Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e024112

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

Background Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are effective in the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. In 2014, the first miniaturized ICM was introduced with a less invasive implant technique. The impact of this technology on ICM use in pediatric patients has not been evaluated. We hypothesized an increase in annual pediatric ICM implants starting in 2014 attributable to device miniaturization. Methods and Results A retrospective observational study was conducted using administrative claims from MarketScan Medicaid and commercial insurance claims databases. Use of ICM between January 2013 and December 2018 was measured (normalized to the total enrolled population ≤18 years) and compared with balancing measures (Holter ambulatory monitors, cardiac event monitors, encounters with syncope diagnosis, implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker). Secondary analyses included evaluations of subsequent interventions and complications. The study cohort included 33 532 185 individual subjects, of which 769 (0.002%) underwent ICM implantation. Subjects who underwent ICM implantation were 52% male sex, with a median age of 16 years (interquartile range, 10-17 years). A history of syncope was present in 71%, palpitations in 43%, and congenital heart disease in 28%. Following release of the miniaturized ICM, use of ICMs increased from 5 procedures per million enrollees in 2013 to 11 per million between 2015 and 2018 (<0.001), while balancing measures remained static. Of 394 subjects with ≥1 year of follow-up after implantation, interventions included catheter ablation in 24 (6%), pacemaker implantation in 15 (4%), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in 7 (2%). Conclusions Introduction of the miniaturized ICM was followed by a rapid increase in pediatric use. The effects on outcomes and value deserve further attention.

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.024112

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35929446

Title

Impact of Device Miniaturization on Insertable Cardiac Monitor Use in the Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e024112

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

Background Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are effective in the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. In 2014, the first miniaturized ICM was introduced with a less invasive implant technique. The impact of this technology on ICM use in pediatric patients has not been evaluated. We hypothesized an increase in annual pediatric ICM implants starting in 2014 attributable to device miniaturization. Methods and Results A retrospective observational study was conducted using administrative claims from MarketScan Medicaid and commercial insurance claims databases. Use of ICM between January 2013 and December 2018 was measured (normalized to the total enrolled population ≤18 years) and compared with balancing measures (Holter ambulatory monitors, cardiac event monitors, encounters with syncope diagnosis, implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker). Secondary analyses included evaluations of subsequent interventions and complications. The study cohort included 33 532 185 individual subjects, of which 769 (0.002%) underwent ICM implantation. Subjects who underwent ICM implantation were 52% male sex, with a median age of 16 years (interquartile range, 10-17 years). A history of syncope was present in 71%, palpitations in 43%, and congenital heart disease in 28%. Following release of the miniaturized ICM, use of ICMs increased from 5 procedures per million enrollees in 2013 to 11 per million between 2015 and 2018 (<0.001), while balancing measures remained static. Of 394 subjects with ≥1 year of follow-up after implantation, interventions included catheter ablation in 24 (6%), pacemaker implantation in 15 (4%), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in 7 (2%). Conclusions Introduction of the miniaturized ICM was followed by a rapid increase in pediatric use. The effects on outcomes and value deserve further attention.

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.024112

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35929446

Title

Practice Variation in Use of Neuroimaging Among Infants With Concern for Abuse Treated in Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e225005

Date Published

2022 Apr 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Infants who appear neurologically well and have fractures concerning for abuse are at increased risk for clinically occult head injuries. Evidence of excess variation in neuroimaging practices when abuse is suspected may indicate opportunity for quality and safety improvement.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To quantify neuroimaging practice variation across children's hospitals among infants with fractures evaluated for abuse, with the hypothesis that hospitals would vary substantially in neuroimaging practices. As a secondary objective, factors associated with neuroimaging use were identified, with the hypothesis that age and factors associated with potential biases (ie, payer type and race or ethnicity) would be associated with neuroimaging use.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cross-sectional study included infants with a femur or humerus fracture or both undergoing abuse evaluation at 44 select US children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) from January 1, 2016, through March 30, 2020, including emergency department, observational, and inpatient encounters. Included infants were aged younger than 12 months with a femur or humerus fracture or both without overt signs or symptoms of head injury for whom a skeletal survey was performed. To focus on infants at increased risk for clinically occult head injuries, infants with billing codes suggestive of overt neurologic signs or symptoms were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate demographic, clinical, and temporal factors associated with use of neuroimaging. Marginal standardization was used to report adjusted percentages of infants undergoing neuroimaging by hospital and payer type. Data were analyzed from March 2021 through January 2022.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Covariates included age, sex, race and ethnicity, payer type, fracture type, presentation year, and hospital.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Use of neuroimaging by CT or MRI.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 2585 infants with humerus or femur fracture or both undergoing evaluations for possible child abuse, there were 1408 (54.5%) male infants, 1726 infants (66.8%) who were publicly insured, and 1549 infants (59.9%) who underwent neuroimaging. The median (IQR) age was 6.1 (3.2-8.3) months. There were 748 (28.9%) Black non-Hispanic infants, 426 (16.5%) Hispanic infants, 1148 (44.4%) White non-Hispanic infants. In multivariable analyses, younger age (eg, odds ratio [OR] for ages &lt;3 months vs ages 9 to &lt;12 months, 13.2; 95% CI, 9.54-18.2; P &lt; .001), male sex (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22-1.78; P &lt; .001), payer type (OR for public vs private insurance, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85; P = .003), fracture type (OR for femur and humerus fracture vs isolated femur fracture, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.11-13.6; P = .002), and hospital (adjusted range in use of neuroimaging, 37.4% [95% CI 21.4%-53.5%] to 83.6% [95% CI 69.6%-97.5%]; P &lt; .001) were associated with increased use of neuroimaging, but race and ethnicity were not. Publicly insured infants were more likely to undergo neuroimaging (62.0%; 95% CI, 60.0%-64.1%) than privately insured infants (55.1%; 95% CI, 51.8%-58.4%) (P = .001).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>This study found that hospitals varied in neuroimaging practices among infants with concern for abuse. Apparent disparities in practice associated with insurance type suggest opportunities for quality, safety, and equity improvement.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.5005

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

35442455

Title

The Design of a Data Management System for a Multicenter Palliative Care Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 23

ISSN Number

1873-6513

Abstract

<p><strong>CONTEXT: </strong>Prospective cohort studies of individuals with serious illness and their family members, such as children receiving palliative care and their parents, pose challenges regarding data management.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe the design and lessons learned regarding the data management system for the Pediatric Palliative Care Research Network's SHAred Data and REsearch (SHARE) project, a multicenter prospective cohort study of children receiving pediatric palliative care (PPC) and their parents, and to describe important attributes of this system, with specific considerations for the design of future studies.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The SHARE study consists of 643 PPC patients and up to two of their parents who enrolled from April 2017 to December 2020 at 7 children's hospitals across the United States. Data regarding demographics, patient symptoms, goals of care, and other characteristics were collected directly from parents or patients at 6 timepoints over a 24-month follow-up period and stored electronically in a centralized location. Using medical record numbers, primary collected data was linked to administrative hospitalization data containing diagnostic and procedure codes and other data elements. Important attributes of the data infrastructure include linkage of primary and administrative data; centralized availability of multilingual questionnaires; electronic data collection and storage system; time-stamping of instrument completion; and a separate but connected study administrative database used to track enrollment.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Investigators planning future multicenter prospective cohort studies can consider attributes of the data infrastructure we describe when designing their data management system.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2022.03.006

Alternate Title

J Pain Symptom Manage

PMID

35339611

Title

Novel Risk Model to Predict Emergency Department Associated Mortality for Patients Supported With a Ventricular Assist Device: The Emergency Department-Ventricular Assist Device Risk Score.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e020942

Date Published

2022 Jan 13

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> The past decade has seen tremendous growth in patients with ambulatory ventricular assist devices. We sought to identify patients that present to the emergency department (ED) at the highest risk of death. <strong>Methods and Results</strong> This retrospective analysis of ED encounters from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample includes 2010 to 2017. Using a random sampling of patient encounters, 80% were assigned to development and 20% to validation cohorts. A risk model was derived from independent predictors of mortality. Each patient encounter was assigned to 1 of 3 groups based on risk score. A total of 44&nbsp;042 ED ventricular assist device patient encounters were included. The majority of patients were male (73.6%), &lt;65&nbsp;years old (60.1%), and 29% presented with bleeding, stroke, or device complication. Independent predictors of mortality during the ED visit or subsequent admission included age ≥65&nbsp;years (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-4.6), primary diagnoses (stroke [OR, 19.4; 95% CI, 13.1-28.8], device complication [OR, 10.1; 95% CI, 6.5-16.7], cardiac [OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.7-6.1], infection [OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.5-8.9]), and blood transfusion (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-4.0), whereas history of hypertension was protective (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). The risk score predicted mortality areas under the curve of 0.78 and 0.71 for development and validation. Encounters in the highest risk score strata had a 16-fold higher mortality compared with the lowest risk group (15.8% versus 1.0%). <strong>Conclusions</strong> We present a novel risk score and its validation for predicting mortality of patients with ED ventricular assist devices, a high-risk, and growing, population.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.020942

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35023355

Title

Impact of Age on Emergency Resource Utilization and Outcomes in Pediatric and Young Adult Patients Supported with a Ventricular Assist Device.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 03

ISSN Number

1538-943X

Abstract

<p>There are minimal data describing outcomes in ambulatory pediatric and young adult ventricular assist device (VAD)-supported patient populations. We performed a retrospective analysis of encounter-level data from 2006 to 2017 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) to compare emergency department (ED) resource utilization and outcomes for pediatric (≤18 years, n = 494) to young adult (19-29 years, n = 2,074) VAD-supported patient encounters. Pediatric encounters were more likely to have a history of congenital heart disease (11.3% vs. 4.8%). However, Pediatric encounters had lower admission/transfer rates (37.8% vs. 57.8%) and median charges ($3,334 (IQR $1,473-$19,818) vs. $13,673 ($3,331-$45,884)) (all p &lt; 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression modeling revealed that age itself was not a predictor of admission, instead high acuity primary diagnoses and medical complexity were: (adjusted odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals): cardiac (3.0; 1.6-5.4), infection (3.4; 1.7-6.5), bleeding (3.9; 1.7-8.8), device complication (7.2; 2.7-18.9), and ≥1 chronic comorbidity (4.1; 2.5-6.7). In this largest study to date describing ED resource use and outcomes for pediatric and young adult VAD-supported patients, we found that, rather than age, high acuity presentations and comorbidities were primary drivers of clinical outcomes. Thus, reducing morbidity in this population should target comorbidities and early recognition of VAD-related complications.</p>

DOI

10.1097/MAT.0000000000001603

Alternate Title

ASAIO J

PMID

34743138

Title

Prevalent Pharmacotherapy of United States Fontan Survivors: A study utilizing data from the MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Claims Databases.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Sep 25

ISSN Number

1097-6744

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Survivors of Fontan palliation are at life-long risk of thrombosis, arrhythmia, and circulatory failure. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated current United States pharmaceutical prescription practice in this population.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A retrospective observational study evaluating the prevalent use of prescription medications in children and adolescents with hypoplastic left heart syndrome or tricuspid atresia after Fontan completion (identified using ICD9/10 codes) was performed using data contained in the MarketScan® Commercial and Medicaid databases for the years 2013 through 2018. Cardiac pharmaceuticals were divided by class. Anticoagulant agents other than platelet inhibitors, which are not uniformly a prescription medication, were also studied. Associations between increasing age and the likelihood of a filled prescription for each class of drug were evaluated. Annualized retail costs of pharmaceutical regimens were calculated.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A cohort of 4056 subjects [median age 12 years (IQR: 8-16), 61% male, 60% commercial insurance] was identified. Of the cohort, 50% received no prescription medications. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB) (38%), diuretics (15%), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (8%) were prescribed with the highest frequency. Pulmonary vasodilators were received by 6% of subjects. Older age was associated with increased likelihood of filled prescriptions for anticoagulants (p=0.008), antiarrhythmic agents, digoxin, ACEi/ARB, and beta blockers (each p&lt;0.0001), but also lower likelihood of filled prescriptions for pulmonary vasodilators, conventional diuretics (both p&lt;0.0001), and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (p=0.02).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Pharmaceuticals typically used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension are the most commonly prescribed medications following Fontan palliation. While the likelihood of treatment with a particular class of medication is associated with the age of the patient, determining the optimal regimen for individual patients and the population at large is an important knowledge gap for future research.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ahj.2021.09.012

Alternate Title

Am Heart J

PMID

34582777

Title

Effect of first-line biologic initiation on glucocorticoid exposure in children hospitalized with new-onset systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis: emulation of a pragmatic trial using observational data.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

109

Date Published

2021 Jul 05

ISSN Number

1546-0096

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Glucocorticoid exposure is a significant driver of morbidity in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). We determined the effect of early initiation of biologic therapy (IL-1 or IL-6 inhibition) on glucocorticoid exposure in hospitalized patients with new-onset sJIA.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We emulated a pragmatic sequence of trials ("pseudo-trials") of biologic initiation in children (≤ 18 years) hospitalized with new-onset sJIA utilizing retrospective data from an administrative database from 52 tertiary care children's hospitals from 2008 to 2019. Eligibility window, treatment assignment and start of follow-up between biologic and non-biologic study arms were aligned for each pseudo-trial. Patients in the source population could meet eligibility criteria at several timepoints. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to determine the effect of biologic initiation on in-hospital glucocorticoid exposure.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Four hundred sixty-eight children met eligibility criteria, of which 19% received biologic therapy without preceding or concomitant initiation of immunomodulatory medications. This proportion significantly increased over time during the study period (p&nbsp;&lt; &nbsp;0.01). 1451 trial subjects were included across 4 pseudo-trials with 71 assigned to the biologic arm and 1380 assigned to the non-biologic arm. After adjustment, there was a trend toward decreased odds of glucocorticoid initiation in the biologic arm compared to the non-biologic arm (OR 0.39, 95% CI [0.13, 1.15]).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Biologic initiation in children hospitalized with new-onset sJIA significantly increased over time and may be associated with reduced glucocorticoid exposure. The increasing use of first-line biologic therapy may lead to clinically relevant reductions in treatment-related adverse effects of glucocorticoid-reliant therapeutic approaches.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s12969-021-00597-z

Alternate Title

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J

PMID

34225753

Title

Mental Health Disorders and Emergency Resource Use and Outcomes in Ventricular Assist Device Supported Patients.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jun 02

ISSN Number

1097-6744

Abstract

<p>There are limited data describing the prevalence of mental health disorders (MHDOs) in patients with ventricular assist devices (VADs), or associations between MHDOs and resource use or outcomes. We used the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample administrative database to analyze 44,041 ED encounters for VAD-supported adults from 2010 to 2017, to assess the relationship between MHDOs and outcomes in this population. MHDO diagnoses were present for 23% of encounters, and were associated with higher charges and rates of admission, but lower mortality.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ahj.2021.05.018

Alternate Title

Am Heart J

PMID

34089695

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