First name
Eunice
Middle name
Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research
Last name
Network

Title

Incidence of and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Late-Onset Meningitis Among Children Born Extremely Preterm.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e2245826

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Late-onset meningitis (LOM) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born extremely preterm.

OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of LOM during birth hospitalization and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 26 months' corrected age.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study is a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort of children born at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation between 2003 and 2017 with follow-up from 2004 to 2021. The study was conducted at 25 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers.

EXPOSURES: Culture-confirmed LOM.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incidence and microbiology of LOM (2003-2017); lumbar puncture (LP) performance in late-onset sepsis (LOS) evaluations (2011-2017); composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI; 2004-2021).

RESULTS: Among 13 372 infants (median [IQR] gestational age, 25.4 [24.4-26.1] weeks; 6864 [51%] boys), LOM was diagnosed in 167 (1%); LOS without LOM in 4564 (34%); and neither LOS nor LOM in 8641 (65%). The observed incidence of LOM decreased from 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%) in 2003 to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.0%) in 2017 (P < .001). LP performance in LOS evaluations decreased from 36% (95% CI, 33%-40%) in 2011 to 24% (95% CI, 21%-27%) in 2017 (P < .001). Among infants with culture-confirmed LOS, LP performance decreased from 58% (95% CI, 51%-65%) to 45% (95% CI, 38%-51%; P = .008). LP performance varied by center among all LOS evaluations (10%-59%, P < .001) and among those with culture-confirmed LOS (23%-79%, P < .001). LOM occurred in the absence of concurrent LOS in 27 of 167 cases (16%). The most common LOM isolates were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (98 [59%]), Candida albicans (38 [23%]), and Escherichia coli (27 [16%]). Death or NDI occurred in 22 of 46 children (48%) with LOM due to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 43 of 67 (64%) due to all other bacterial pathogens, and 26 of 33 (79%) due to fungal pathogens. The adjusted relative risk of death or NDI was increased among children with LOM (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.25) and among those with LOS without LOM (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.29-1.54) compared with children with neither infection.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, LP was performed with decreasing frequency, and the observed incidence of LOM also decreased. Both LOM and LOS were associated with increased risk of death or NDI; risk varied by LOM pathogen. The full association of LOM with outcomes of children born extremely preterm may be underestimated by current diagnostic practices.

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.45826

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

36480199

Title

Neonatal infections: Insights from a multicenter longitudinal research collaborative.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

151637

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1558-075X

Abstract

For more than 30 years, the Neonatal Research Network (NRN) has conducted studies addressing the epidemiology of neonatal infections, including incidence, microbiology, maternal and neonatal risk factors, associated clinical findings, and outcomes. These studies have provided clinicians and policymakers critical data needed to inform national guidance for infection risk assessment and support daily practice. Further, NRN studies have prompted research into optimal approaches to infection diagnosis, treatment, and antimicrobial stewardship. In this article, we summarize the key findings of NRN infection-related studies, with an emphasis on those published in 2000 or later.

DOI

10.1016/j.semperi.2022.151637

Alternate Title

Semin Perinatol

PMID

35864010

Title

Impact of Early-Onset Sepsis and Antibiotic Use on Death or Survival with Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 2 Years of Age among Extremely Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

39-46.e5

Date Published

2020 Jun

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that early-onset sepsis increases risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among preterm infants; and that among infants without early-onset sepsis, prolonged early antibiotics alters risk of death/NDI.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of infants born at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers (2006-2014) at 22-26 weeks of gestation and birth weight 401-1000 g. Early-onset sepsis defined as growth of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture ≤72 hours after birth. Prolonged early antibiotics was defined as antibiotics initiated ≤72 hours and continued ≥5 days without culture-confirmed infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, or spontaneous perforation. Primary outcome was death before follow-up or NDI assessed at 18-26 months corrected age. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and CI for early-onset sepsis outcomes. A propensity score for receiving prolonged antibiotics was derived from early clinical factors and used to match infants (1:1) with and without prolonged antibiotic exposure. Log binomial models were used to estimate aRR for outcomes in matched infants.

RESULTS: Among 6565 infants, those with early-onset sepsis had higher aRR (95% CI) for death/NDI compared with infants managed with prolonged antibiotics (1.18 [1.06-1.32]) and to infants without prolonged antibiotics (1.23 [1.10-1.37]). Propensity score matching was achieved for 4362 infants. No significant difference in death/NDI (1.04 [0.98-1.11]) was observed with or without prolonged antibiotics among the matched cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset sepsis was associated with increased risk of death/NDI among extremely preterm infants. Among matched infants without culture-confirmed infection, prolonged early antibiotic administration was not associated with death/NDI.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.038

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

32446491

Title

Group B Streptococcal Infection in Extremely Preterm Neonates and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 22

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Determine the incidence of GBS disease among extremely preterm infants and assess risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-26 months' corrected age.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Observational cohort study of infants enrolled in a multicenter registry. GBS disease incidence was assessed in infants born 1998-2016 at 22-28 weeks' gestation surviving &gt;12 hours. The composite outcome, death or NDI, was assessed in infants born 1998-2014 at 22-26 weeks' gestation. Infection was defined as GBS isolation in blood/CSF culture at ≤72 hours (early-onset disease, EOD) and &gt;72 hours (late-onset disease, LOD) after birth. The outcome was compared in infants with GBS disease, infants infected with other pathogens, and uninfected infants using Poisson regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Incidence of GBS EOD (2.70/1000 births [95% CI: 2.15-3.36]) and LOD (8.47/1000 infants [7.45-9.59]) did not change significantly over time. The adjusted relative risk (aRR, 95% CI) of death/NDI was higher among GBS EOD cases compared to infants with other infections (1.22, [1.02-1.45]) and uninfected infants (1.44, [1.23-1.69]). Death/NDI did not differ between infants with GBS LOD and comparator groups. GBS LOD occurred at a significantly later age than non-GBS late-onset infection. Among infants surviving &gt;30 days, the risk of death was higher with GBS LOD (1.90, [1.36-2.67]), compared to uninfected infants.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In a cohort of extremely preterm infants, incidence of GBS disease did not change during the study period. Increased risk of death/NDI with GBS EOD, and of death among some infants with GBS LOD, supports the need for novel preventive strategies for disease reduction.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac222

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35323895

Title

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles Among Neonatal Early-onset Sepsis Pathogens.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 30

ISSN Number

1532-0987

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Empiric administration of ampicillin and gentamicin is recommended for newborns at risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS). There are limited data on antimicrobial susceptibility of all EOS pathogens.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective review of antimicrobial susceptibility data from a prospective EOS surveillance study of infants born ≥22 weeks' gestation and cared for in Neonatal Research Network centers April 2015-March 2017. Nonsusceptible was defined as intermediate or resistant on final result.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 239 pathogens (235 bacteria, 4 fungi) in 235 EOS cases among 217,480 live-born infants. Antimicrobial susceptibility data were available for 189/239 (79.1%) isolates. Among 81 Gram-positive isolates with ampicillin and gentamicin susceptibility data, all were susceptible in vitro to either ampicillin or gentamicin. Among Gram-negative isolates with ampicillin and gentamicin susceptibility data, 72/94 (76.6%) isolates were nonsusceptible to ampicillin, 8/94 (8.5%) were nonsusceptible to gentamicin, and 7/96 (7.3%) isolates were nonsusceptible to both. Five percent or less of tested Gram-negative isolates were nonsusceptible to each of third or fourth generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, and carbapenems. Overall, we estimated that 8% of EOS cases were caused by isolates nonsusceptible to both ampicillin and gentamicin; these were most likely to occur among preterm, very-low birth weight infants.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The vast majority of contemporary EOS pathogens are susceptible to the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin. Clinicians may consider the addition of broader-spectrum therapy among newborns at highest risk of EOS, but we caution that neither the substitution nor the addition of 1 single antimicrobial agent is likely to provide adequate empiric therapy in all cases.</p>

DOI

10.1097/INF.0000000000003380

Alternate Title

Pediatr Infect Dis J

PMID

34862339

Title

The Diagnosis of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in Very Preterm Infants: An Evidence-Based Approach.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Apr 17

ISSN Number

1535-4970

Abstract

<p><strong>RATIONALE: </strong>Current diagnostic criteria for bronchopulmonary dysplasia rely heavily on the level and duration of oxygen therapy, do not reflect contemporary neonatal care, nor adequately predict childhood morbidity.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To determine which of 18 pre-specified, revised definitions of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, that variably define disease presence and severity according to the level of respiratory support and supplemental oxygen administered at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, best predicts death or serious respiratory morbidity through 18-26 months corrected age.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We assessed infants born &lt;32 weeks' gestation between 2011-2015 at 18 centers of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 2677 infants, 683 (26%) died or developed serious respiratory morbidity. The criteria that best predicted this outcome defined bronchopulmonary dysplasia according to treatment with the following support at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, irrespective of prior or current oxygen therapy: no bronchopulmonary dysplasia, no support (n=773); grade 1, nasal cannula ≤2L/min (n=1038); grade 2, nasal cannula &gt;2L/min or non-invasive positive airway pressure (n=617); and grade 3, invasive mechanical ventilation (n=249). These criteria correctly predicted death or serious respiratory morbidity in 81% of study infants. Rates of this outcome increased stepwise from 10% among infants without bronchopulmonary dysplasia to 77% among those with grade 3 disease. A similar gradient (33%-79%) was observed for death or neurodevelopmental impairment.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The definition of bronchopulmonary dysplasia that best predicted early childhood morbidity categorized disease severity according to the mode of respiratory support at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, irrespective of supplemental oxygen use. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).</p>

DOI

10.1164/rccm.201812-2348OC

Alternate Title

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

PMID

30995069

Title

Prolonged duration of early antibiotic therapy in extremely premature infants.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jan 22

ISSN Number

1530-0447

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Prolonged early antibiotics in extremely premature infants may have negative effects. We aimed to assess prevalence and outcomes of provision of prolonged early antibiotics to extremely premature infants in the absence of culture-confirmed infection or NEC.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cohort study of infants from 13 centers born without a major birth defect from 2008-2014 who were 401-1000 grams birth weight, 22-28 weeks gestation, and survived ≥5 days without culture-confirmed infection, NEC, or spontaneous intestinal perforation. We determined the proportion of infants who received prolonged early antibiotics, defined as ≥5 days of antibiotic therapy started at ≤72 h of age, by center and over time. Associations between prolonged early antibiotics and adverse outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 5730 infants were included. The proportion of infants receiving prolonged early antibiotics varied from 30-69% among centers and declined from 49% in 2008 to 35% in 2014. Prolonged early antibiotics was not significantly associated with death (adjusted odds ratio 1.17 [95% CI: 0.99-1.40], p = 0.07) and was not associated with NEC.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The proportion of extremely premature infants receiving prolonged early antibiotics decreased, but significant center variation persists. Prolonged early antibiotics were not significantly associated with increased odds of death or NEC.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41390-019-0300-4

Alternate Title

Pediatr. Res.

PMID

30737489

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