First name
Joseph
Middle name
W
Last name
Rossano

Title

Association of Donors With US Public Health Service Risk Criteria and Outcomes After Adult vs Pediatric Cardiac Transplant.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1121-1127

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

2380-6591

Abstract

Importance: The United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) evaluates donor risk for acute transmission of HIV, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C based on US Public Health Services (PHS)-specific criteria. However, recent data regarding use and outcomes of those donors with PHS risk criteria among pediatric and adult heart transplant recipients are lacking.

Objective: To compare use and outcomes of graft from donors with PHS risk criteria vs those with a standard-risk donor (SRD) in children vs adults in a contemporary cohort.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort was a nationwide analysis of heart transplants in the US that used data from the UNOS database. Participants were children (<18 years old) and adults (≥18 years old) who received a heart transplant from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2021.

Exposures: UNOS-defined donor risk status.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Trend analysis compared changes in PHS risk criteria use among children and adults. Patient survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves with log rank and Cox proportional hazards to compare PHS risk-criteria outcomes vs SRD-criteria outcomes in children and adult heart transplant recipients. Additional analysis was performed among adults who received a PHS-risk criteria graft that was previously declined for pediatric recipients.

Results: Of 5115 pediatric transplant recipients (donor without PHS risk median [IQR] age, 5 [0-13] years and donor with PHS risk median [IQR] age, 8 [0-14] years) and 30 289 adult heart transplant recipients (donor without PHS risk median [IQR] age, 56 [46-63] years and donor with PHS risk median [IQR] age, 57 [47-63] years), PHS risk criteria comprised 8% in children vs 25% in adults. PHS criteria are being increasingly used over the past decade with the proportion of recipients transplanted with PHS risk-criteria donors being approximately 3 times greater among adult recipients than children recipients. Pediatric recipients of a PHS risk-criteria donor had greater pretransplant ventilatory support, whereas adult recipients of a PHS risk-criteria donor had greater pretransplant extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Patient survival was similar between pediatric recipients of PHS risk-criteria grafts vs SRD-criteria grafts and slightly higher among adult recipients of PHS risk-criteria grafts vs SRD-criteria grafts. The 1778 adult recipients who received a PHS criteria-risk donor that was previously declined for pediatric recipients had similar patient survival recipients compared with SRD-criteria donors (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.81-1.03; P = .18).

Conclusions and Relevance: In the current era, a 3-fold greater proportion of adult recipients receive a PHS risk-criteria graft compared with children despite similar posttransplant patient survival. The ongoing organ donor shortage underscores the need for consideration of PHS risk criteria where these donors remain underused.

DOI

10.1001/jamacardio.2022.3070

Alternate Title

JAMA Cardiol

PMID

36129691

Title

Sex Differences in Left Ventricular Assist Device-related Emergency Department Encounters in the United States.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1445-1455

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1532-8414

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding sex differences in the profiles and outcomes of ambulatory patients on left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support who present to the emergency department (ED).

METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 57,200 LVAD-related ED patient encounters from the 2010 to 2018 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. International Classification of Diseases Clinical Modification, Ninth Revision and Tenth Revision, codes identified patients aged 18 years or older with LVADs and associated primary and comorbidity diagnoses. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were stratified by sex and compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of hospital admission and death. Female patient encounters comprised 27.2% of ED visits and occurred at younger ages and more frequently with obesity and depression (all P < .01). There were no sex differences in presentation for device complication, stroke, infection, or heart failure (all P > .05); however, female patient encounters were more often respiratory- and genitourinary or gynecological related (both P < .01). After adjustment for age group, diabetes, depression, and hypertension, male patient encounters had a 38% increased odds of hospital admission (95% confidence interval 1.20-1.58), but there was no sex difference in the adjusted odds of death (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.86-1.45).

CONCLUSIONS: Patient encounters of females on LVAD support have significantly different comorbidities and outcomes compared with males. Further inquiry into these sex differences is imperative to improve long-term outcomes.

DOI

10.1016/j.cardfail.2022.05.005

Alternate Title

J Card Fail

PMID

35644307

Title

Elevated Troponin in the First 72 h of Hospitalization for Pediatric Viral Myocarditis is Associated with ECMO: An Analysis of the PHIS+ Database.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1139-1143

Date Published

2018 Aug

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

Serum troponin (Tn) is often elevated in viral myocarditis; however, its prognostic significance is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal serum Tn is associated with mortality in children hospitalized with myocarditis. We retrospectively studied data from six large children's hospitals participating in the Pediatric Health Information System Plus (PHIS+) database. Analysis was performed on patients hospitalized with viral myocarditis between 2007 and 2013, in whom at least one Tn was recorded within 72 h of admission. Abnormal baseline Tn was defined as any value outside the upper limit of normal within the first 72 h. Primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes included mechanical support, defined as use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or a ventricular assist device (VAD), cardiac transplantation, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), mechanical ventilation, and inotrope use. A total of 149 patients with myocarditis (61% male, 48% adolescents) across all PHIS+ centers had TnI (n = 113) or TnT (n = 36) recorded. At least one abnormal Tn was present in 81% of cases. Overall mortality was 7.3% and was not associated with abnormal baseline Tn. Abnormal baseline Tn was associated with ECMO (7.1 vs. 25.6%, p = 0.03) and IVIg (46.4 vs. 83.5%, p < 0.001). Abnormal baseline Tn was not associated with transplantation, mechanical ventilation or inotrope use. Abnormal Tn in the first 72 h of hospitalization for myocarditis was associated with the use of ECMO and IVIg, but was not associated with mortality. This finding may help risk stratify this population if it can be prospectively validated.

DOI

10.1007/s00246-018-1871-2

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

29654450

Title

Survival Without Cardiac Transplantation Among Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

2663-2673

Date Published

2017 Nov 28

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies of children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have suggested that improved survival has been primarily due to utilization of heart transplantation.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine transplant-free survival for these children over 20 years and identify the clinical characteristics at diagnosis that predicted death.

METHODS: Children <18 years of age with some type of DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry were divided by year of diagnosis into an early cohort (1990 to 1999) and a late cohort (2000 to 2009). Competing risks and multivariable modeling were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of death, transplant, and echocardiographic normalization by cohort and to identify the factors associated with death.

RESULTS: Of 1,953 children, 1,199 were in the early cohort and 754 were in the late cohort. Most children in both cohorts had idiopathic DCM (64% vs. 63%, respectively). Median age (1.6 vs. 1.7 years), left ventricular end-diastolic z-scores (+4.2 vs. +4.2), and left ventricular fractional shortening (16% vs. 17%) at diagnosis were similar between cohorts. Although the rates of echocardiographic normalization (30% and 27%) and heart transplantation (24% and 24%) were similar, the death rate was higher in the early cohort than in the late cohort (18% vs. 9%; p = 0.04). Being in the early cohort (hazard ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.9; p = 0.03) independently predicted death.

CONCLUSIONS: Children with DCM have improved survival in the more recent era. This appears to be associated with factors other than heart transplantation, which was equally prevalent in both eras. (Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry [PCMR]; NCT00005391).

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2017.09.1089

Alternate Title

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

PMID

29169474

Title

Variation in hospital costs and resource utilisation after congenital heart surgery.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1-12

Date Published

2022 Apr 04

ISSN Number

1467-1107

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children undergoing cardiac surgery have overall improving survival, though they consume substantial resources. Nationwide inpatient cost estimates and costs at longitudinal follow-up are lacking.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of children &lt;19&nbsp;years of age admitted to Pediatric Health Information System administrative database with an International Classification of Diseases diagnosis code undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients were grouped into neonates (≤30&nbsp;days of age), infants (31-365&nbsp;days of age), and children (&gt;1&nbsp;year) at index procedure. Primary and secondary outcomes included hospital stay and hospital costs at index surgical admission and 1- and 5-year follow-up.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of the 99,670 cohort patients, neonates comprised 27% and had the highest total hospital costs, though daily hospital costs were lower. Mortality declined (5.6% in 2004 versus 2.5% in 2015, p &lt; 0.0001) while inpatient costs rose (5% increase/year, p &lt; 0.0001). Neonates had greater index diagnosis complexity, greater inpatient costs, required the greatest ICU resources, pharmacotherapy, and respiratory therapy. We found no relationship between hospital surgical volume, mortality, and hospital costs. Neonates had higher cumulative hospital costs at 1- and 5-year follow-up compared to infants and children.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Inpatient hospital costs rose during the study period, driven primarily by longer stay. Neonates had greater complexity index diagnosis, required greater hospital resources, and have higher hospital costs at 1 and 5&nbsp;years compared to older children. Surgical volume and in-hospital mortality were not associated with costs. Further analyses comprising merged clinical and administrative data are necessary to identify longer stay and cost drivers after paediatric cardiac surgery.</p>

DOI

10.1017/S1047951122001019

Alternate Title

Cardiol Young

PMID

35373722

Title

MILESTONE: More Than 1,200 Children Bridged to Heart Transplantation with Mechanical Circulatory Support.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

577-583

Date Published

2022 Apr 01

ISSN Number

1538-943X

Abstract

<p>Pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has been successfully used to bridge numerous children to transplantation who otherwise would have been unlikely to survive on the waitlist and, in many cases, make them better transplant candidates. The purpose of this study was to analyze what the pediatric heart failure community has achieved over the last 15 years in reaching 1,200 cases of bridging children to heart transplantation. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was used to identify MCS patients ages 0-18 at the time of listing for heart transplantation between 2005 and 2019, divided into three eras: first (2005-2009), second (2010-2014), and third (2015-2019). From 2005 to 2019, 1,289 pediatric cases were identified. More patients were successfully bridged to transplantation with MCS in the third-era (28%) [vs. first-era (16%), second-era (24%), p ≤ 0.004]. The proportion of discharges on ventricular assist device has increased as well from 3% to 22% (p &lt; 0.001). Post-transplant survival was significantly better in the third era (1-year survival: 96%; 3-year survival: 89%) compared to the two previous eras (p = 0.006). On MCS, renal dysfunction, ventilator dependence, inotrope use, and functional status improved from the time of listing to transplantation (p &lt; 0.01). Hepatic dysfunction (p &lt; 0.001), renal dysfunction (p = 0.004), congenital heart disease (p = 0.023), and infant age (p = 0.002) were risk factors for post-transplant mortality. Over the last 15 years, pediatric MCS has become an accepted and increasingly used strategy for bridging children to transplantation. MCS therapy is associated with improved end-organ function at the time of transplantation, perhaps contributing to the increasing post-transplantation survival of patients bridged with MCS.</p>

DOI

10.1097/MAT.0000000000001635

Alternate Title

ASAIO J

PMID

35349524

Title

Pediatric Device Trials are the Ideal way to Bring Devices to Market.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

231-234

Date Published

2022 Mar

ISSN Number

2150-136X

DOI

10.1177/21501351221075572

Alternate Title

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg

PMID

35238711

Title

Safety and Feasibility of Exercise Rehabilitation in Children with Ventricular Assist Devices.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Feb 08

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

<p>Children with advanced heart failure may require ventricular assist devices (VAD) while awaiting heart transplantation. Currently, no data exist regarding the safety of exercise rehabilitation (ER) in children on VAD support. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of ER in children on VAD support awaiting heart transplantation. Eligible patients underwent VAD placement between 1998 and 2019; both inpatient and outpatient participants were included. After VAD implantation and when ambulatory, patients were enrolled in ER. Exercise sessions were scheduled three times a week and consisted of aerobic and musculoskeletal conditioning. A total of 29 patients (59% male, mean age 14 ± 3.2&nbsp;years) were included with a median VAD duration of 120 ± 109&nbsp;days. Cardiac diagnoses included cardiomyopathy (81%) and congenital heart disease (19%). VAD type included pulsatile (59%) and continuous-flow devices (41%). Eight hundred and sixty-four (85%) ER sessions were successfully completed and began at a mean of 49&nbsp;days (range 19-108) after VAD implant. No adverse events, including episodes of hypotension, significant complex arrhythmia, or VAD malfunction occurred during exercise testing or ER, and no sessions were discontinued prematurely. Pediatric patients on VAD support can safely participate in ER with relatively high compliance, and sessions can be implemented early after VAD implantation. Given the safety profile, ER in pediatric VAD recipients, which is a modifiable pre-transplant risk factor that may improve functional capacity, warrants further study as a potential modality to improve post-transplant outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00246-022-02819-x

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

35137274

Title

Novel Risk Model to Predict Emergency Department Associated Mortality for Patients Supported With a Ventricular Assist Device: The Emergency Department-Ventricular Assist Device Risk Score.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e020942

Date Published

2022 Jan 13

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> The past decade has seen tremendous growth in patients with ambulatory ventricular assist devices. We sought to identify patients that present to the emergency department (ED) at the highest risk of death. <strong>Methods and Results</strong> This retrospective analysis of ED encounters from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample includes 2010 to 2017. Using a random sampling of patient encounters, 80% were assigned to development and 20% to validation cohorts. A risk model was derived from independent predictors of mortality. Each patient encounter was assigned to 1 of 3 groups based on risk score. A total of 44&nbsp;042 ED ventricular assist device patient encounters were included. The majority of patients were male (73.6%), &lt;65&nbsp;years old (60.1%), and 29% presented with bleeding, stroke, or device complication. Independent predictors of mortality during the ED visit or subsequent admission included age ≥65&nbsp;years (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-4.6), primary diagnoses (stroke [OR, 19.4; 95% CI, 13.1-28.8], device complication [OR, 10.1; 95% CI, 6.5-16.7], cardiac [OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.7-6.1], infection [OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.5-8.9]), and blood transfusion (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-4.0), whereas history of hypertension was protective (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.5-0.9). The risk score predicted mortality areas under the curve of 0.78 and 0.71 for development and validation. Encounters in the highest risk score strata had a 16-fold higher mortality compared with the lowest risk group (15.8% versus 1.0%). <strong>Conclusions</strong> We present a novel risk score and its validation for predicting mortality of patients with ED ventricular assist devices, a high-risk, and growing, population.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.020942

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35023355

Title

The genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 10

ISSN Number

1537-6605

Abstract

<p>To understand the genetic contribution to primary pediatric cardiomyopathy, we performed exome sequencing in a large cohort of 528 children with cardiomyopathy. Using clinical interpretation guidelines and targeting genes implicated in cardiomyopathy, we identified a genetic cause in 32% of affected individuals. Cardiomyopathy sub-phenotypes differed by ancestry, age at diagnosis, and family history. Infants &lt; 1 year were less likely to have a molecular diagnosis (p &lt; 0.001). Using a discovery set of 1,703 candidate genes and informatic tools, we identified rare and damaging variants in 56% of affected individuals. We see an excess burden of damaging variants in affected individuals as compared to two independent control sets, 1000 Genomes Project (p &lt; 0.001) and SPARK parental controls (p &lt; 1&nbsp;× 10). Cardiomyopathy variant burden remained enriched when stratified by ancestry, variant type, and sub-phenotype, emphasizing the importance of understanding the contribution of these factors to genetic architecture. Enrichment in this discovery candidate gene set suggests multigenic mechanisms underlie sub-phenotype-specific causes and presentations of cardiomyopathy. These results identify important information about the genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy and support recommendations for clinical genetic testing in children while illustrating differences in genetic architecture by age, ancestry, and sub-phenotype and providing rationale for larger studies to investigate multigenic contributions.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.12.006

Alternate Title

Am J Hum Genet

PMID

35026164

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