First name
Walton
Middle name
O
Last name
Schalick

Title

Traumatic injury clinical trial evaluating tranexamic acid in children (TIC-TOC): a pilot randomized trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 10

ISSN Number

1553-2712

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in adults with traumatic hemorrhage; however, the drug has not been evaluated in a trial in injured children. We evaluated the feasibility of a large-scale trial evaluating the effects of TXA in children with severe hemorrhagic injuries.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Severely injured children (0 up to 18 birthday) were randomized into a double-blind randomized trial of 1) TXA 15 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by 2 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 hours, 2) TXA 30 mg/kg bolus dose, followed by 4 mg/kg/hr infusion over 8 hours, or 3) normal saline placebo bolus and infusion. The trial was conducted at 4 pediatric Level I trauma centers in the United States between June 2018 and March 2020. We enrolled patients under federal exception from informed consent (EFIC) procedures when parents were unable to provide informed consent. Feasibility outcomes included the rate of enrollment, adherence to intervention arms, and ability to measure the primary clinical outcome. Clinical outcomes included global functioning (primary), working memory, total amount of blood products transfused, intracranial hemorrhage progression, and adverse events. The target enrollment rate was at least 1.25 patients per site per month.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 31 patients were randomized with a mean age of 10.7 years (standard deviation [SD] 5.0 years) and 22 (71%) patients were male. The mean time from injury to randomization was 2.4 hours (SD 0.6 hours). Sixteen (52%) patients had isolated brain injuries and 15 (48%) patients had isolated torso injuries. The enrollment rate using EFIC was 1.34 patients per site per month. All eligible enrolled patients received study intervention (9 patients TXA 15 mg/kg bolus dose, 10 patients TXA 30 mg/kg bolus dose, and 12 patients placebo) and had the primary outcome measured. No statistically significant differences in any of the clinical outcomes were identified.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Based on enrollment rate, protocol adherence, and measurement of the primary outcome in this pilot trial, we confirmed the feasibility of conducting a large-scale, randomized trial evaluating the efficacy of TXA in severely injured children with hemorrhagic brain and/or torso injuries using EFIC.</p>

DOI

10.1111/acem.14481

Alternate Title

Acad Emerg Med

PMID

35266589

Title

Traumatic injury clinical trial evaluating tranexamic acid in children (TIC-TOC): study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

593

Date Published

2018 Oct 30

ISSN Number

1745-6215

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children in the United States. The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in adults with traumatic hemorrhage, however, the drug has not been evaluated in a clinical trial in severely injured children. We designed the Traumatic Injury Clinical Trial Evaluating Tranexamic Acid in Children (TIC-TOC) trial to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a confirmatory clinical trial that evaluates the effects of TXA in children with severe trauma and hemorrhagic injuries.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children with severe trauma and evidence of hemorrhagic torso or brain injuries will be randomized to one of three arms: (1) TXA dose A (15&nbsp;mg/kg bolus dose over 20&nbsp;min, followed by 2&nbsp;mg/kg/hr infusion over 8&nbsp;h), (2) TXA dose B (30&nbsp;mg/kg bolus dose over 20&nbsp;min, followed by 4&nbsp;mg/kg/hr infusion over 8&nbsp;h), or (3) placebo. We will use permuted-block randomization by injury type: hemorrhagic brain injury, hemorrhagic torso injury, and combined hemorrhagic brain and torso injury. The trial will be conducted at four pediatric Level I trauma centers. We will collect the following outcome measures: global functioning as measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life (PedsQL) and Pediatric Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E Peds), working memory (digit span test), total amount of blood products transfused in the initial 48&nbsp;h, intracranial hemorrhage progression at 24&nbsp;h, coagulation biomarkers, and adverse events (specifically thromboembolic events and seizures).</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>This multicenter trial will provide important preliminary data and assess the feasibility of conducting a confirmatory clinical trial that evaluates the benefits of TXA in children with severe trauma and hemorrhagic injuries to the torso and/or brain.</p>

<p><strong>TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02840097 . Registered on 14 July 2016.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s13063-018-2974-z

Alternate Title

Trials

PMID

30376893

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