First name
Joan
Middle name
I
Last name
Schall

Title

Vitamin D status, nutrition and growth in HIV-infected mothers and HIV-exposed infants and children in Botswana.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e0236510

Date Published

2020

ISSN Number

1932-6203

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Poor vitamin D status is a global health problem and common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in high-income countries. There is less evidence on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and nutrition and growth in HIV-infected and -exposed children in low- and middle-income countries.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the vitamin D status in Batswana HIV-infected mothers and their children, differences among HIV-infected mothers and between HIV-exposed and -infected infants and children, and associations between vitamin D and disease-related outcomes, nutrition, and growth.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a cross-sectional study of HIV+ mothers and HIV-exposed infants and unrelated children (1-7.9 years). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured, among other nutritional indicators, for mothers, infants and children. Vitamin D status for HIV-infected mothers and children, and an immune panel was assessed. History of HIV anti-retroviral medications and breastfeeding were obtained. Data were collected prior to universal combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Mothers (n = 36) had a mean serum 25(OH)D of 37.2±12.4ng/mL; 11% had insufficient (&lt;20ng/mL), 17% moderately low (20.0-29.9ng/mL) and 72% sufficient (≥30ng/mL) concentrations. No infants (n = 36) or children (n = 48) were vitamin D insufficient; 22% of HIV- and no HIV+ infants had moderately low concentrations and 78% of HIV- and 100% of HIV+ infants had sufficient status, 8% of HIV- and no HIV+ children had moderately low concentrations and 92% of HIV- and 100% HIV+ children had sufficient concentrations. HIV+ children had significantly lower length/height Z scores compared to HIV- children. Length/height Z score was positively correlated with serum 25(OH)D in all children (r = 0.33, p = 0.023), with a stronger correlation in the HIV+ children (r = 0.47 p = 0.021). In mothers, serum 25(OH)D was positively associated with CD4% (r = 0.40, p = 0.016).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Results showed a low prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Botswana. Growth was positively correlated with vitamin D status in HIV-exposed children, and HIV+ children had poorer linear growth than HIV- children.</p>

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0236510

Alternate Title

PLoS ONE

PMID

32790765

Title

Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Z-Score Calculation Equations and Their Application in Childhood Disease.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Oct 29

ISSN Number

1523-4681

Abstract

<p>Annual gains in BMC and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in children vary with age, pubertal status, height-velocity, and lean body mass accrual (LBM velocity). Evaluating bone accrual in children with bone health-threatening conditions requires consideration of these determinants. The objective of this study was to develop prediction equations for calculating BMC/aBMD velocity SD scores (velocity-Z) and to evaluate bone accrual in youth with health conditions. Bone and body compositions via DXA were obtained for up to six annual intervals in healthy youth (n = 2014) enrolled in the Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study (BMDCS) . Longitudinal statistical methods were used to develop sex- and pubertal-status-specific reference equations for calculating velocity-Z for total body less head-BMC and lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TotHip), femoral neck, and 1/3-radius aBMD. Equations accounted for (1) height velocity, (2) height velocity and weight velocity, or (3) height velocity and LBM velocity. These equations were then applied to observational, single-center, 12-month longitudinal data from youth with cystic fibrosis (CF; n = 65), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors (n = 45), or Crohn disease (CD) initiating infliximab (n = 72). Associations between BMC/aBMD-Z change (conventional pediatric bone health monitoring method) and BMC/aBMD velocity-Z were assessed. The BMC/aBMD velocity-Z for CF, ALL, and CD was compared with BMDCS. Annual changes in the BMC/aBMD-Z and the BMC/aBMD velocity-Z were strongly correlated, but not equivalent; LS aBMD-Z = 1 equated with LS aBMD velocity-Z = -3. In CF, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was normal. In posttherapy ALL, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was increased, particularly at TotHip (1.01 [-.047; 1.7], p &lt; 0.0001). In CD, BMC/aBMD velocity-Z was increased at all skeletal sites. LBM-velocity adjustment attenuated these increases (eg, TotHip aBMD velocity-Z: 1.13 [0.004; 2.34] versus 1.52 [0.3; 2.85], p &lt; 0.0001). Methods for quantifying the BMC/aBMD velocity that account for maturation and body composition changes provide a framework for evaluating childhood bone accretion and may provide insight into mechanisms contributing to altered accrual in chronic childhood conditions. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.</p>

DOI

10.1002/jbmr.3589

Alternate Title

J. Bone Miner. Res.

PMID

30372552

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