First name
Naveen
Last name
Muthu

Title

Sustainable deimplementation of continuous pulse oximetry monitoring in children hospitalized with bronchiolitis: study protocol for the Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) type III effectiveness-deimplementation cluster-randomized trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

72

Date Published

10/2022

ISSN Number

1748-5908

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Methods of sustaining the deimplementation of overused medical practices (i.e., practices not supported by evidence) are understudied. In pediatric hospital medicine, continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of children with the common viral respiratory illness bronchiolitis is recommended only under specific circumstances. Three national guidelines discourage its use for children who are not receiving supplemental oxygen, but guideline-discordant practice (i.e., overuse) remains prevalent. A 6-hospital pilot of educational outreach with audit and feedback resulted in immediate reductions in overuse; however, the best strategies to optimize sustainment of deimplementation success are unknown.

METHODS: The Eliminating Monitor Overuse (EMO) trial will compare two deimplementation strategies in a hybrid type III effectiveness-deimplementation trial. This longitudinal cluster-randomized design will be conducted in Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings (PRIS) Network hospitals and will include baseline measurement, active deimplementation, and sustainment phases. After a baseline measurement period, 16-19 hospitals will be randomized to a deimplementation strategy that targets unlearning (educational outreach with audit and feedback), and the other 16-19 will be randomized to a strategy that targets unlearning and substitution (adding an EHR-integrated clinical pathway decision support tool). The primary outcome is the sustainment of deimplementation in bronchiolitis patients who are not receiving any supplemental oxygen, analyzed as a longitudinal difference-in-differences comparison of overuse rates across study arms. Secondary outcomes include equity of deimplementation and the fidelity to, and cost of, each deimplementation strategy. To understand how the deimplementation strategies work, we will test hypothesized mechanisms of routinization (clinicians developing new routines supporting practice change) and institutionalization (embedding of practice change into existing organizational systems).

DISCUSSION: The EMO trial will advance the science of deimplementation by providing new insights into the processes, mechanisms, costs, and likelihood of sustained practice change using rigorously designed deimplementation strategies. The trial will also advance care for a high-incidence, costly pediatric lung disease.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05132322 . Registered on November 10, 2021.

DOI

10.1186/s13012-022-01246-z

Alternate Title

Implement Sci

PMID

36271399

Title

Leveraging EHR Data to Evaluate the Association of Late Recognition of Deterioration With Outcomes.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

447-460

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Emergency transfers (ETs), deterioration events with late recognition requiring ICU interventions within 1 hour of transfer, are associated with adverse outcomes. We leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data to assess the association between ETs and outcomes. We also evaluated the association between intervention timing (urgency) and outcomes.

METHODS: We conducted a propensity-score-matched study of hospitalized children requiring ICU transfer between 2015 and 2019 at a single institution. The primary exposure was ET, automatically classified using Epic Clarity Data stored in our enterprise data warehouse endotracheal tube in lines/drains/airway flowsheet, vasopressor in medication administration record, and/or ≥60 ml/kg intravenous fluids in intake/output flowsheets recorded within 1 hour of transfer. Urgent intervention was defined as interventions within 12 hours of transfer.

RESULTS: Of 2037 index transfers, 129 (6.3%) met ET criteria. In the propensity-score-matched cohort (127 ET, 374 matched controls), ET was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (13% vs 6.1%; odds ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.24-4.9, P = .01), longer ICU length of stay (subdistribution hazard ratio of ICU discharge 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91, P < .01), and longer posttransfer length of stay (SHR of hospital discharge 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90, P < .01). Increased intervention urgency was associated with increased mortality risk: 4.1% no intervention, 6.4% urgent intervention, and 10% emergent intervention.

CONCLUSIONS: An EHR measure of deterioration with late recognition is associated with increased mortality and length of stay. Mortality risk increased with intervention urgency. Leveraging EHR automation facilitates generalizability, multicenter collaboratives, and metric consistency.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006363

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35470399

Title

Clinical Decision Support Stewardship: Best Practices and Techniques to Monitor and Improve Interruptive Alerts.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

560-568

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1869-0327

Abstract

Interruptive clinical decision support systems, both within and outside of electronic health records, are a resource that should be used sparingly and monitored closely. Excessive use of interruptive alerting can quickly lead to alert fatigue and decreased effectiveness and ignoring of alerts. In this review, we discuss the evidence for effective alert stewardship as well as practices and methods we have found useful to assess interruptive alert burden, reduce excessive firings, optimize alert effectiveness, and establish quality governance at our institutions. We also discuss the importance of a holistic view of the alerting ecosystem beyond the electronic health record.

DOI

10.1055/s-0042-1748856

Alternate Title

Appl Clin Inform

PMID

35613913

Title

Characteristics of Emergency Room and Hospital Encounters Resulting From Consumer Home Monitors.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e239-e244

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Consumer home monitors (CHM), which measure vital signs, are popular products marketed to detect airway obstruction and arrhythmia. Yet, they lack evidence of infant death prevention, demonstrate suboptimal accuracy, and may result in false alarms that prompt unnecessary acute care visits. To better understand the hospital utilization and costs of CHM, we characterized emergency department (ED) and hospital encounters associated with CHM use at a children's hospital.

METHODS: We used structured query language to search the free text of all ED and admission notes between January 2013 and December 2019 to identify clinical documentation discussing CHM use. Two physicians independently reviewed the presence of CHM use and categorized encounter characteristics.

RESULTS: Evidence of CHM use contributed to the presentation of 36 encounters in a sample of over 300 000 encounters, with nearly half occurring in 2019. The leading discharge diagnoses were viral infection (13, 36%), gastroesophageal reflux (8, 22%) and false positive alarm (6, 17%). Median encounter duration was 20 hours (interquartile range: 3 hours to 2 days; max 10.5 days) and median cost of encounters was $2188 (interquartile range: $255 to $7632; max $84 928).

CONCLUSIONS: Although the annual rate of CHM-related encounters was low and did not indicate a major public health burden, for individual families who present to the ED or hospital for concerns related to CHMs, there may be important adverse financial and emotional consequences.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006438

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35762227

Title

Diagnostic Reasoning of Resident Physicians in the Age of Clinical Pathways.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

466-474

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1949-8357

Abstract

Background: Development of skills in diagnostic reasoning is paramount to the transition from novice to expert clinicians. Efforts to standardize approaches to diagnosis and treatment using clinical pathways are increasingly common. The effects of implementing pathways into systems of care during diagnostic education and practice among pediatric residents are not well described.

Objective: To characterize pediatric residents' perceptions of the tradeoffs between clinical pathway use and diagnostic reasoning.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study from May to December 2019. Senior pediatric residents from a high-volume general pediatric inpatient service at an academic hospital participated in semi-structured interviews. We utilized a basic interpretive qualitative approach informed by a dual process diagnostic reasoning framework.

Results: Nine residents recruited via email were interviewed. Residents reported using pathways when admitting patients and during teaching rounds. All residents described using pathways primarily as management tools for patients with a predetermined diagnosis, rather than as aids in formulating a diagnosis. As such, pathways primed residents to circumvent crucial steps of deliberate diagnostic reasoning. However, residents relied on bedside assessment to identify when patients are "not quite fitting the mold" of the current pathway diagnosis, facilitating recalibration of the diagnostic process.

Conclusions: This study identifies important educational implications at the intersection of residents' cognitive diagnostic processes and use of clinical pathways. We highlight potential challenges clinical pathways pose for skill development in diagnostic reasoning by pediatric residents. We suggest opportunities for educators to leverage clinical pathways as a framework for development of these skills.

DOI

10.4300/JGME-D-21-01032.1

Alternate Title

J Grad Med Educ

PMID

35991115

Title

Clinical Decision Support in the PICU: Implications for Design and Evaluation.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 29

ISSN Number

1529-7535

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To assess the current landscape of clinical decision support (CDS) tools in PICUs in order to identify priority areas of focus in this field.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>International, quantitative, cross-sectional survey.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Role-specific, web-based survey administered in November and December 2020.</p>

<p><strong>SUBJECTS: </strong>Medical directors, bedside nurses, attending physicians, and residents/advanced practice providers at Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Network-affiliated PICUs.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTIONS: </strong>None.</p>

<p><strong>MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: </strong>The survey was completed by 109 respondents from 45 institutions, primarily attending physicians from university-affiliated PICUs in the United States. The most commonly used CDS tools were people-based resources (93% used always or most of the time) and laboratory result highlighting (86%), with order sets, order-based alerts, and other electronic CDS tools also used frequently. The most important goal providers endorsed for CDS tools were a proven impact on patient safety and an evidence base for their use. Negative perceptions of CDS included concerns about diminished critical thinking and the burden of intrusive processes on providers. Routine assessment of existing CDS was rare, with infrequent reported use of observation to assess CDS impact on workflows or measures of individual alert burden.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Although providers share some consensus over CDS utility, we identified specific priority areas of research focus. Consensus across practitioners exists around the importance of evidence-based CDS tools having a proven impact on patient safety. Despite broad presence of CDS tools in PICUs, practitioners continue to view them as intrusive and with concern for diminished critical thinking. Deimplementing ineffective CDS may mitigate this burden, though postimplementation evaluation of CDS is rare.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PCC.0000000000002973

Alternate Title

Pediatr Crit Care Med

PMID

35481951

Title

Leveraging EHR Data to Evaluate the Association of Late Recognition of Deterioration With Outcomes.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

447-460

Date Published

2022 May 01

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Emergency transfers (ETs), deterioration events with late recognition requiring ICU interventions within 1 hour of transfer, are associated with adverse outcomes. We leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data to assess the association between ETs and outcomes. We also evaluated the association between intervention timing (urgency) and outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a propensity-score-matched study of hospitalized children requiring ICU transfer between 2015 and 2019 at a single institution. The primary exposure was ET, automatically classified using Epic Clarity Data stored in our enterprise data warehouse endotracheal tube in lines/drains/airway flowsheet, vasopressor in medication administration record, and/or ≥60 ml/kg intravenous fluids in intake/output flowsheets recorded within 1 hour of transfer. Urgent intervention was defined as interventions within 12 hours of transfer.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 2037 index transfers, 129 (6.3%) met ET criteria. In the propensity-score-matched cohort (127 ET, 374 matched controls), ET was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (13% vs 6.1%; odds ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.24-4.9, P = .01), longer ICU length of stay (subdistribution hazard ratio of ICU discharge 0.74; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91, P &lt; .01), and longer posttransfer length of stay (SHR of hospital discharge 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.90, P &lt; .01). Increased intervention urgency was associated with increased mortality risk: 4.1% no intervention, 6.4% urgent intervention, and 10% emergent intervention.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>An EHR measure of deterioration with late recognition is associated with increased mortality and length of stay. Mortality risk increased with intervention urgency. Leveraging EHR automation facilitates generalizability, multicenter collaboratives, and metric consistency.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006363

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35470399

Title

Measuring Training Disruptions Using an Informatics Based Tool.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 16

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Training disruptions, such as planned curricular adjustments or unplanned global pandemics, impact residency training in ways that are difficult to quantify. Informatics-based medical education tools can help measure these impacts. We tested the ability of a software platform driven by electronic health record data to quantify anticipated changes in trainee clinical experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We previously developed and validated the Trainee Individualized Learning System (TRAILS) to identify pediatric resident clinical experiences (i.e. shifts, resident provider-patient interactions (rPPIs), and diagnoses). We used TRAILS to perform a year-over-year analysis comparing pediatrics residents at a large academic children's hospital during March 15 - June 15 in 2018 (Control #1), 2019 (Control #2) and 2020 (Exposure).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Residents in the exposure cohort had fewer shifts than those in both control cohorts (p &lt; 0.05). rPPIs decreased an average of 43% across all PGY levels, with interns experiencing a 78% decrease in Continuity Clinic. Patient continuity decreased from 23% to 11%. rPPIs with common clinic and emergency department diagnoses decreased substantially during the exposure period.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Informatics tools like TRAILS may help program directors understand the impact of training disruptions on resident clinical experiences and target interventions to learners' needs and development.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.006

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35306187

Title

The Alarm Burden of Excess Continuous Pulse Oximetry Monitoring Among Patients With Bronchiolitis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 17

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p>Guidelines discourage continuous pulse oximetry monitoring of hospitalized infants with bronchiolitis who are not receiving supplemental oxygen. Excess monitoring is theorized to contribute to increased alarm burden, but this burden has not been quantified. We evaluated admissions of 201 children (aged 0-24 months) with bronchiolitis. We categorized time ≥60 minutes following discontinuation of supplemental oxygen as "continuously monitored (guideline-discordant)," "intermittently measured (guideline-concordant)," or "unable to classify." Across 4402 classifiable hours, 77% (11,101) of alarms occurred during periods of guideline-discordant monitoring. Patients experienced a median of 35 alarms (interquartile range [IQR], 10-81) during guideline-discordant, continuously monitored time, representing a rate of 6.7 alarms per hour (IQR, 2.1-12.3). In comparison, the median hourly alarm rate during periods of guideline-concordant intermittent measurement was 0.5 alarms per hour (IQR, 0.1-0.8). Reducing guideline-discordant monitoring in bronchiolitis patients would reduce nurse alarm burden.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3731

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

34798003

Title

Alert burden in pediatric hospitals: a cross-sectional analysis of six academic pediatric health systems using novel metrics.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 19

ISSN Number

1527-974X

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Excessive electronic health record (EHR) alerts reduce the salience of actionable alerts. Little is known about the frequency of interruptive alerts across health systems and how the choice of metric affects which users appear to have the highest alert burden.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>(1) Analyze alert burden by alert type, care setting, provider type, and individual provider across 6 pediatric health systems. (2) Compare alert burden using different metrics.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>We analyzed interruptive alert firings logged in EHR databases at 6 pediatric health systems from 2016-2019 using 4 metrics: (1) alerts per patient encounter, (2) alerts per inpatient-day, (3) alerts per 100 orders, and (4) alerts per unique clinician days (calendar days with at least 1 EHR log in the system). We assessed intra- and interinstitutional variation and how alert burden rankings differed based on the chosen metric.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Alert burden varied widely across institutions, ranging from 0.06 to 0.76 firings per encounter, 0.22 to 1.06 firings per inpatient-day, 0.98 to 17.42 per 100 orders, and 0.08 to 3.34 firings per clinician day logged in the EHR. Custom alerts accounted for the greatest burden at all 6 sites. The rank order of institutions by alert burden was similar regardless of which alert burden metric was chosen. Within institutions, the alert burden metric choice substantially affected which provider types and care settings appeared to experience the highest alert burden.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Estimates of the clinical areas with highest alert burden varied substantially by institution and based on the metric used.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jamia/ocab179

Alternate Title

J Am Med Inform Assoc

PMID

34664664

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