First name
Grammatiki-Christina
Last name
Tsopela

Title

Potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator on clinical management of neonates with presumed sepsis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 18

ISSN Number

1432-1076

Abstract

<p>To assess the potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente early-onset sepsis calculator (EOS-C), in terms of antibiotic use and requested laboratory tests, in a network of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Greece, and to determine the incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Greek NICUs, a prospective surveillance study was conducted in 7 NICUs between April 2018 and June 2019. Data were collected for all newborns ≥ 34&nbsp;weeks' gestation receiving empiric antibiotic therapy within the first 3&nbsp;days of life. The number of live births and positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid cultures within the first 3&nbsp;days of life were used for calculation of EOS incidence. Evaluation of possible impact of implementing the calculator was done by comparing the clinicians' recorded management to the calculator's suggested course of action. The unit-specific incidence of culture-proven EOS ranged between 0 and 2.99/1000 live births. The weighted incidence rate for all 7 units was 1.8/1000 live births. Management of EOS guided by the calculator could lead to a reduction of empiric antibiotic initiation up to 100% for the group of "well-appearing" neonates and 86% for "equivocal," lowering exposure to antibiotics by 4.2 and 3.8&nbsp;days per neonate, respectively. Laboratory tests for blood cultures drawn could be reduced by up to 100% and 68%, respectively. Sensitivity of the EOS-C in identifying neonates with positive blood cultures was high.Conclusion: Management strategies based on the Kaiser Permanente neonatal sepsis calculator may significantly reduce antibiotic exposure, invasive diagnostic procedures, and hospitalizations in late preterm and term neonates. What is Known: • Neonates are frequently exposed to antibiotics for presumed EOS. • The Kaiser Permanente sepsis calculator can reduce antibiotic exposure in neonates.. What is New: • EOS calculator can be an effective antibiotic stewardship tool in a high prescribing country and can reduce invasive diagnostic procedures and mother-baby separation. • Incidence of EOS in Greece is higher compared to other European countries.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00431-021-04282-x

Alternate Title

Eur J Pediatr

PMID

34664107

Title

Reducing Duration of Antibiotic Use for Presumed Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis in Greek NICUs. A "Low-Hanging Fruit" Approach.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 09

ISSN Number

2079-6382

Abstract

Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU), where stewardship interventions are challenging. Lowering antibiotic consumption is desperately needed in Greece, a country with high antibiotic resistance rates. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a low-cost and -resource intervention to reduce antibiotic use in Greek NICUs implementing a "low-hanging fruit" approach. A prospective quasi-experimental study was conducted in 15/17 public NICUs in Greece (9/2016-06/2019). The intervention selected was discontinuation of antibiotics within 5 days for neonates with gestational age ≥ 37 weeks, no documented signs or symptoms of sepsis, CRP ≤ 10 mg/L and negative cultures within 3 days of antibiotic initiation. Impact was evaluated by the percentage of discontinued regimens by day 5, length of therapy (LOT) and stay. Trends of antibiotic consumption were assessed with days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient-days. Overall, there was a 9% increase ( = 0.003) of antibiotic discontinuation in ≤5 days. In total, 7/13 (53.8%) units showed a ≥10% increase. Overall, 615 days on antibiotics per 1000 patients were saved. Interrupted time-series analysis established a declining trend in DOT/1000 patient-days relative to the pre-intervention trend ( = 0.002); a monthly decrease rate of 28.96 DOT/1000 patient-days ( = 0.001, 95%CI [-45.33, -12.60]). The intervention had no impact on antibiotic choice. Antibiotic use was successfully reduced in Greek NICUs using a "low-hanging fruit" approach. In resource-limited settings, similar targeted stewardship interventions can be applied.

DOI

10.3390/antibiotics10030275

Alternate Title

Antibiotics (Basel)

Title

Increasing healthcare workers' uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination in a tertiary-care pediatric hospital in Greece with a low-cost, tailor-made, multifaceted strategy.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 May 16

ISSN Number

1873-2518

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Healthcare workers' (HCW) seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV) is critical to prevent nosocomial influenza. However, HCW vaccination rates remain unacceptably low in many European institutions. A two-year three-step initiative was implemented at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital with 750 beds in Athens, Greece with the aim of increasing SIV among HCW.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Α cross-sectional anonymous survey of HCWs was conducted during the 2015-16 influenza season with the aim to evaluate attitudes, knowledge, and specific barriers and facilitators for SIV. Stratified analysis was used to identify factors associated with no prior history of influenza vaccination. Multifaceted interventions were implemented in the 2016-2017 season. These included 1) education around influenza disease and SIV, and 2) communication of availability and opportunity (time and place) of SIV. Interventions were designed to target HCWs with the lowest SIV rates in the previous three years.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We achieved a 67% response rate, with 363 respondents (106 doctors, 145 nurses, 101 other hospital staff; 11 did not provide their profession). Most (64%) had not been vaccinated in the previous three years; only 14% received the vaccine annually. Non-vaccination rates were significantly higher among nurses (76%) and cleaning and food-service workers (73%) compared to doctors (40%) (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001). Protection of self, family, patients and colleagues were the most common motivations. Concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, the belief that one does not belong to a high-risk group were the most common barriers. The interventions led to an increase in SIV uptake by the HCWs in the hospital, from 19% to 31%.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In a country with very low reported rates of vaccination among HCWs, a simple, low-cost, tailor-made intervention strategy can lead to an increase in SIV uptake. Stratifying data according to vaccination history may reveal a diversity of targets for improvement that might otherwise be missed.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.021

Alternate Title

Vaccine

PMID

32430148

Title

Surveillance for central-line-associated bloodstream infections: Accuracy of different sampling strategies.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-6

Date Published

2018 Aug 29

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Active daily surveillance of central-line days (CLDs) in the assessment of rates of central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) is time-consuming and burdensome for healthcare workers. Sampling of denominator data is a method that could reduce the time necessary to conduct active surveillance.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To evaluate the accuracy of various sampling strategies in the estimation of CLABSI rates in adult and pediatric units in Greece.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Daily denominator data were collected across Greece for 6 consecutive months in 33 units: 11 adult units, 4 pediatric intensive care units (PICUs), 12 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), and 6 pediatric oncology units. Overall, 32 samples were evaluated using the following strategies: (1) 1 fixed day per week, (2) 2 fixed days per week, and (3) 1 fixed week per month. The CLDs for each month were estimated as follows: (number of sample CLDs/number of sampled days) × 30. The estimated CLDs were used to calculate CLABSI rates. The accuracy of the estimated CLABSI rates was assessed by calculating the percentage error (PE): [(observed CLABSI rates - estimated CLABSI rates)/observed CLABSI rates].</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Compared to other strategies, sampling over 2 fixed days per week provided the most accurate estimates of CLABSI rates for all types of units. Percentage of estimated CLABSI rates with PE ≤±5% using the strategy of 2 fixed days per week ranged between 74.6% and 88.7% in NICUs. This range was 79.4%-94.1% in pediatric onology units, 62.5%-91.7% in PICUs, and 80.3%-92.4% in adult units. Further evaluation with intraclass correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots indicated that the estimated CLABSI rates were reliable.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Sampling over 2 fixed days per week provides a valid alternative to daily collection of CLABSI denominator data. Adoption of such a monitoring method could be an important step toward better and less burdensome infection control and prevention.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2018.187

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

30156182

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