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AIMS: Fear of hypoglycaemia (FOH) can contribute to impaired sleep for adults with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) and parents of children with T1D, although it is unknown how fear of hypoglycaemia (FOH) may affect sleep for adolescents with T1D. This study examines the relationship between adolescent FOH and sleep and assessed the influences of continuous glucose monitor (CGM) and insulin pump use.
METHODS: Adolescents ages 14-18 years with T1D completed questionnaires evaluating FOH (Child Hypoglycemia Fear Survey) and sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI). Analyses included linear and logistic regression, t-tests, and Fisher's exact tests.
RESULTS: Participants included 95 adolescents (52 female) with a median (IQR) age of 16.5 (15.3-17.7) years and a T1D duration of 5.7 (2.5-9.6) years. Analyses showed increased FOH-Worry subscale scores were associated with reduced sleep duration (β = -0.03, p = 0.042, adjusting for BMI z-score, race and ethnicity) and increased sleep disturbances (OR = 1.1, p = 0.038, adjusting for race and ethnicity). Frequent CGM users had longer sleep duration (average 7.5 hours) compared to infrequent or non-CGM users (average = 6.8 hours; p = 0.029), and pump users had overall improved sleep health as determined by PSQI score (p=0.019). Technology use did not have significant interactions in the relationships between FOH and sleep duration or sleep disturbances.
CONCLUSIONS: Worry about hypoglycaemia was associated with impaired sleep for adolescents with T1D. Diabetes technology users have some sleep improvements, but CGM and pump use does little to alter the relationship between FOH and sleep outcomes.