First name
Holly
Last name
Depinet

Title

Validation of the Pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment Score and Evaluation of Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock Definitions in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

672-678

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

Importance: Pediatric sepsis definitions have evolved, and some have proposed using the measure used in adults to quantify organ dysfunction, a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of 2 or more in the setting of suspected infection. A pediatric adaptation of SOFA (pSOFA) showed excellent discrimination for mortality in critically ill children but has not been evaluated in an emergency department (ED) population.

Objective: To delineate test characteristics of the pSOFA score for predicting in-hospital mortality among (1) all patients and (2) patients with suspected infection treated in pediatric EDs.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study took place from January 1, 2012, to January 31, 2020 in 9 US children's hospitals included in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Registry. The data was analyzed from February 1, 2020, to April 18, 2022. All ED visits for patients younger than 18 years were included.

Exposures: ED pSOFA score was assigned by summing maximum pSOFA organ dysfunction components during ED stay (each 0-4 points). In the subset with suspected infection, visit meeting criteria for sepsis (suspected infection with a pSOFA score of 2 or more) and septic shock (suspected infection with vasoactive infusion and serum lactate level >18.0 mg/dL) were identified.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Test characteristics of pSOFA scores of 2 or more during the ED stay for hospital mortality.

Results: A total of 3 999 528 (female, 47.3%) ED visits were included. pSOFA scores ranged from 0 to 16, with 126 250 visits (3.2%) having a pSOFA score of 2 or more. pSOFA scores of 2 or more had sensitivity of 0.65 (95% CI, 0.62-0.67) and specificity of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.97-0.97), with negative predictive value of 1.0 (95% CI, 1.00-1.00) in predicting hospital mortality. Of 642 868 patients with suspected infection (16.1%), 42 992 (6.7%) met criteria for sepsis, and 374 (0.1%) met criteria for septic shock. Hospital mortality rates for suspected infection (599 502), sepsis (42 992), and septic shock (374) were 0.0%, 0.9%, and 8.0%, respectively. The pSOFA score had similar discrimination for hospital mortality in all ED visits (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.79-0.82) and the subset with suspected infection (area under receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.80-0.84).

Conclusions and Relevance: In a large, multicenter study of pediatric ED visits, a pSOFA score of 2 or more was uncommon and associated with increased hospital mortality yet had poor sensitivity as a screening tool for hospital mortality. Conversely, children with a pSOFA score of 2 or less were at very low risk of death, with high specificity and negative predictive value. Among patients with suspected infection, patients with pSOFA-defined septic shock demonstrated the highest mortality.

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.1301

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

35575803

Title

Pediatric Septic Shock Collaborative Improves Emergency Department Sepsis Care in Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>The pediatric emergency department (ED)-based Pediatric Septic Shock Collaborative (PSSC) aimed to improve mortality and key care processes among children with presumed septic shock.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a multicenter learning and improvement collaborative of 19 pediatric EDs from November 2013 to May 2016 with shared screening and patient identification recommendations, bundles of care, and educational materials. Process metrics included minutes to initial vital sign assessment and to first and third fluid bolus and antibiotic administration. Outcomes included 3- and 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality, hospital and ICU lengths of stay, hours on increased ventilation (including new and increases from chronic baseline in invasive and noninvasive ventilation), and hours on vasoactive agent support. Analysis used statistical process control charts and included both the overall sample and an ICU subgroup.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Process improvements were noted in timely vital sign assessment and receipt of antibiotics in the overall group. Timely first bolus and antibiotics improved in the ICU subgroup. There was a decrease in 30-day all-cause in-hospital mortality in the overall sample.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A multicenter pediatric ED improvement collaborative showed improvement in key processes for early sepsis management and demonstrated that a bundled quality improvement-focused approach to sepsis management can be effective in improving care.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-007369

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

35229124

Title

Metric Development for the Multicenter Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes (IPSO) Collaborative.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 04 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>A 56 US hospital collaborative, Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes, has developed variables, metrics and a data analysis plan to track quality improvement (QI)-based patient outcomes over time. Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes expands on previous pediatric sepsis QI efforts by improving electronic data capture and uniformity across sites.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>An expert panel developed metrics and corresponding variables to assess improvements across the care delivery spectrum, including the emergency department, acute care units, hematology and oncology, and the ICU. Outcome, process, and balancing measures were represented. Variables and statistical process control charts were mapped to each metric, elucidating progress over time and informing plan-do-study-act cycles. Electronic health record (EHR) abstraction feasibility was prioritized. Time 0 was defined as time of earliest sepsis recognition (determined electronically), or as a clinically derived time 0 (manually abstracted), identifying earliest physiologic onset of sepsis.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Twenty-four evidence-based metrics reflected timely and appropriate interventions for a uniformly defined sepsis cohort. Metrics mapped to statistical process control charts with 44 final variables; 40 could be abstracted automatically from multiple EHRs. Variables, including high-risk conditions and bedside huddle time, were challenging to abstract (reported in &lt;80% of encounters). Size or type of hospital, method of data abstraction, and previous QI collaboration participation did not influence hospitals' abilities to contribute data. To date, 90% of data have been submitted, representing 200 007 sepsis episodes.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A comprehensive data dictionary was developed for the largest pediatric sepsis QI collaborative, optimizing automation and ensuring sustainable reporting. These approaches can be used in other large-scale sepsis QI projects in which researchers seek to leverage EHR data abstraction.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-017889

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

33795482

Title

Development of a Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative to Improve Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p>Pediatric sepsis is a major public health problem. Published treatment guidelines and several initiatives have increased adherence with guideline recommendations and have improved patient outcomes, but the gains are modest, and persistent gaps remain. The Children's Hospital Association Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes (IPSO) collaborative seeks to improve sepsis outcomes in pediatric emergency departments, ICUs, general care units, and hematology/oncology units. We developed a multicenter quality improvement learning collaborative of US children's hospitals. We reviewed treatment guidelines and literature through 2 in-person meetings and multiple conference calls. We defined and analyzed baseline sepsis-attributable mortality and hospital-onset sepsis and developed a key driver diagram (KDD) on the basis of treatment guidelines, available evidence, and expert opinion. Fifty-six hospital-based teams are participating in IPSO; 100% of teams are engaged in educational and information-sharing activities. A baseline, sepsis-attributable mortality of 3.1% was determined, and the incidence of hospital-onset sepsis was 1.3 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. A KDD was developed with the aim of reducing both the sepsis-attributable mortality and the incidence of hospital-onset sepsis in children by 25% from baseline by December 2020. To accomplish these aims, the KDD primary drivers focus on improving the following: treatment of infection; recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of sepsis; de-escalation of unnecessary care; engagement of patients and families; and methods to optimize performance. IPSO aims to improve sepsis outcomes through collaborative learning and reliable implementation of evidence-based interventions.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-1434

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

33328337

Title

Evaluating Pediatric Sepsis Definitions Designed for Electronic Health Record Extraction and Multicenter Quality Improvement.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e916-e926

Date Published

2020 Oct

ISSN Number

1530-0293

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To describe the Children's Hospital Association's Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes sepsis definitions and the identified patients; evaluate the definition using a published framework for evaluating sepsis definitions.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Observational cohort.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Multicenter quality improvement collaborative of 46 hospitals from January 2017 to December 2018, excluding neonatal ICUs.</p>

<p><strong>PATIENTS: </strong>Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Sepsis was defined by electronic health record evidence of suspected infection and sepsis treatment or organ dysfunction. A more severely ill subgroup, Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Critical Sepsis, was defined, approximating septic shock.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTIONS: </strong>Participating hospitals identified patients, extracted data, and transferred de-identified data to a central data warehouse. The definitions were evaluated across domains of reliability, content validity, construct validity, criterion validity, measurement burden, and timeliness.</p>

<p><strong>MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: </strong>Forty hospitals met data quality criteria across four electronic health record platforms. There were 23,976 cases of Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Sepsis, including 8,565 with Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Critical Sepsis. The median age was 5.9 years. There were 10,316 (43.0%) immunosuppressed or immunocompromised patients, 4,135 (20.3%) with central lines, and 2,352 (11.6%) chronically ventilated. Among Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Sepsis patients, 60.8% were admitted to intensive care, 26.4% had new positive-pressure ventilation, and 19.7% received vasopressors. Median hospital length of stay was 6.0 days (3.0-13.0 d). All-cause 30-day in-hospital mortality was 958 (4.0%) in Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Sepsis; 541 (6.3%) in Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Critical Sepsis. The Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Sepsis definitions demonstrated strengths in content validity, convergent construct validity, and criterion validity; weakness in reliability. Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Sepsis definitions had significant initial measurement burden (median time from case completion to submission: 15 mo [interquartile range, 13-18 mo]); timeliness improved once data capture was established (median, 26 d; interquartile range, 23-56 d).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The Improving Pediatric Sepsis Outcomes Sepsis definitions demonstrated feasibility for large-scale data abstraction. The patients identified provide important information about children treated for sepsis. When operationalized, these definitions enabled multicenter identification and data aggregation, indicating practical utility for quality improvement.</p>

DOI

10.1097/CCM.0000000000004505

Alternate Title

Crit. Care Med.

PMID

32931197

Title

Elevated Heart Rate and Risk of Revisit With Admission in Pediatric Emergency Patients.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Jul 16

ISSN Number

1535-1815

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of this study was to identify emergency department (ED) heart rate (HR) values that identify children at elevated risk of ED revisit with admission.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients 0 to 18 years old discharged from a tertiary-care pediatric ED from January 2013 to December 2014. We created percentile curves for the last recorded HR for age using data from calendar year 2013 and used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to characterize the performance of the percentiles for predicting ED revisit with admission within 72 hours. In a held-out validation data set (calendar year 2014 data), we evaluated test characteristics of last-recorded HR-for-age cut points identified as promising on the ROC curves, as well as those identifying the highest 5% and 1% of last recorded HRs for age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We evaluated 183,433 eligible ED visits. Last recorded HR for age had poor discrimination for predicting revisit with admission (area under the curve, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-0.63). No promising cut points were identified on the ROC curves. Cut points identifying the highest 5% and 1% of last recorded HRs for age showed low sensitivity (10.1% and 2.5%) with numbers needed to evaluate of 62 and 50, respectively, to potentially prevent 1 revisit with admission.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Last recorded ED HR discriminates poorly between children who are and are not at risk of revisit with admission in a pediatric ED. The use of single-parameter HR in isolation as an automated trigger for mandatory reevaluation prior to discharge may not improve revisit outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PEC.0000000000001552

Alternate Title

Pediatr Emerg Care

PMID

30020247

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