First name
Eleni
Last name
Kourkouni

Title

Potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator on clinical management of neonates with presumed sepsis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 18

ISSN Number

1432-1076

Abstract

<p>To assess the potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente early-onset sepsis calculator (EOS-C), in terms of antibiotic use and requested laboratory tests, in a network of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Greece, and to determine the incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Greek NICUs, a prospective surveillance study was conducted in 7 NICUs between April 2018 and June 2019. Data were collected for all newborns ≥ 34&nbsp;weeks' gestation receiving empiric antibiotic therapy within the first 3&nbsp;days of life. The number of live births and positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid cultures within the first 3&nbsp;days of life were used for calculation of EOS incidence. Evaluation of possible impact of implementing the calculator was done by comparing the clinicians' recorded management to the calculator's suggested course of action. The unit-specific incidence of culture-proven EOS ranged between 0 and 2.99/1000 live births. The weighted incidence rate for all 7 units was 1.8/1000 live births. Management of EOS guided by the calculator could lead to a reduction of empiric antibiotic initiation up to 100% for the group of "well-appearing" neonates and 86% for "equivocal," lowering exposure to antibiotics by 4.2 and 3.8&nbsp;days per neonate, respectively. Laboratory tests for blood cultures drawn could be reduced by up to 100% and 68%, respectively. Sensitivity of the EOS-C in identifying neonates with positive blood cultures was high.Conclusion: Management strategies based on the Kaiser Permanente neonatal sepsis calculator may significantly reduce antibiotic exposure, invasive diagnostic procedures, and hospitalizations in late preterm and term neonates. What is Known: • Neonates are frequently exposed to antibiotics for presumed EOS. • The Kaiser Permanente sepsis calculator can reduce antibiotic exposure in neonates.. What is New: • EOS calculator can be an effective antibiotic stewardship tool in a high prescribing country and can reduce invasive diagnostic procedures and mother-baby separation. • Incidence of EOS in Greece is higher compared to other European countries.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00431-021-04282-x

Alternate Title

Eur J Pediatr

PMID

34664107

Title

Reducing Duration of Antibiotic Use for Presumed Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis in Greek NICUs. A "Low-Hanging Fruit" Approach.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 09

ISSN Number

2079-6382

Abstract

Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU), where stewardship interventions are challenging. Lowering antibiotic consumption is desperately needed in Greece, a country with high antibiotic resistance rates. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a low-cost and -resource intervention to reduce antibiotic use in Greek NICUs implementing a "low-hanging fruit" approach. A prospective quasi-experimental study was conducted in 15/17 public NICUs in Greece (9/2016-06/2019). The intervention selected was discontinuation of antibiotics within 5 days for neonates with gestational age ≥ 37 weeks, no documented signs or symptoms of sepsis, CRP ≤ 10 mg/L and negative cultures within 3 days of antibiotic initiation. Impact was evaluated by the percentage of discontinued regimens by day 5, length of therapy (LOT) and stay. Trends of antibiotic consumption were assessed with days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient-days. Overall, there was a 9% increase ( = 0.003) of antibiotic discontinuation in ≤5 days. In total, 7/13 (53.8%) units showed a ≥10% increase. Overall, 615 days on antibiotics per 1000 patients were saved. Interrupted time-series analysis established a declining trend in DOT/1000 patient-days relative to the pre-intervention trend ( = 0.002); a monthly decrease rate of 28.96 DOT/1000 patient-days ( = 0.001, 95%CI [-45.33, -12.60]). The intervention had no impact on antibiotic choice. Antibiotic use was successfully reduced in Greek NICUs using a "low-hanging fruit" approach. In resource-limited settings, similar targeted stewardship interventions can be applied.

DOI

10.3390/antibiotics10030275

Alternate Title

Antibiotics (Basel)

Title

Willingness of Greek general population to get a COVID-19 vaccine.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

3

Date Published

2021 01 29

ISSN Number

2397-0642

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Epidemiological data indicate that a large part of population needs to be vaccinated to achieve herd immunity. Hence, it is of high importance for public health officials to know whether people are going to get vaccinated for COVID-19. The objective of the present study was to examine the willingness of adult residents in Greece to receive a COVID-19 vaccine.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A cross-sectional was survey conducted among the adult general population of Greece between April 28, 2020 to May 03, 2020 (last week of lockdown), using a mixed methodology for data collection: Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) and Computer Assisted web Interviewing (CAWI). Using a sample size calculator, the target sample size was found to be around 1000 respondents. To ensure a nationally representative sample of the urban/rural population according to the Greek census 2011, a proportionate stratified by region systematic sampling procedure was used to recruit particpants. Data collection was guided through a structured questionnaire. Regarding willingness to COVID-19 vaccination, participants were asked to answer the following question: "If there was a vaccine available for the novel coronavirus, would you do it?"</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 1004 respondents only 57.7% stated that they are going to get vaccinated for COVID-19. Respondents aged &gt; 65 years old, those who either themselves or a member of their household belonged to a vulnerable group, those believing that the COVID-19 virus was not developed in laboratories by humans, those believing that coronavirus is far more contagious and lethal compared to the H1N1 virus, and those believing that next waves are coming were statistically significantly more likely to be willing to get a COVID-19 vaccine. Higher knowledge score regarding symptoms, transmission routes and prevention and control measures against COVID-19 was significantly associated with higher willingness of respondents to get vaccinated.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>A significant proportion of individuals in the general population are unwilling to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, stressing the need for public health officials to take immediate awareness-raising measures.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s41256-021-00188-1

Alternate Title

Glob Health Res Policy

PMID

33509291

Title

Prevalence, incidence, length of stay and cost of healthcare-acquired pressure ulcers in pediatric populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

103843

Date Published

2020 Dec 16

ISSN Number

1873-491X

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Pressure ulcers are a major problem for national healthcare systems since they frequently occur in hospitalized patients, negatively affecting patients' quality of life and extending duration of hospitalization.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To systematically review the available evidence regarding the incidence, prevalence, attributable length of stay and cost of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in pediatric populations.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>A systematic review and meta-analysis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A systematic search (March 15, 2020) was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and ProQuest databases. Cross-sectional and cohort studies of neonates and children aged &lt;21 years old were eligible for inclusion when full text was available in English and data for at least one of the following criteria was provided: incidence, prevalence, attributable length of stay or healthcare cost due to hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. Study quality was evaluated using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Random effects models were used to synthesize data. Heterogeneity and publication bias were evaluated.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>From the 1055 studies appeared in literature search, 21 studies were included in the systematic review and 19 were included in the meta-analysis. The overall prevalence ranged from 0.47% to 31.2% and cumulative incidence ranged from 3.7% to 27%. The pooled prevalence was estimated at 7.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.3%-10.4%) and the pooled cumulative incidence at 14.9% (95% CI: 7.7%-23.9%). The pooled prevalence among neonates was 27.0% (95% CI: 22.1%-33.1%) among children aged less than 1 year old was 19.2% (95% CI: 9.4%-31.3%) and among children older than 1 year was 12.3% (95% CI: 2.3%-27.9%). The cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers in neonates was 9.8% (95% CI: 2.9%-19.8%) and in children aged &lt;1 year old was 11.3% (95% CI: 4.4%-20.7%), while no data was available to estimate this figure for children older than 1 year. The attributable length of stay ranged from 0.9 to 14.1 days and the attributable cost ranged from $894.69 to $98,730.24 (United States dollars; value of a dollar in 2020) per patient with hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS: </strong>The results of this meta-analysis indicate that hospital-acquired pressure ulcers occur frequently in pediatric populations with a great variation across different age groups. Moreover, although limited data are available, it seems that hospital-acquired pressure ulcers have significant economic implications for the healthcare systems since they prolong patients' hospitalization stay; these findings further highlight the need for implementation of patient-based prevention strategies.</p>

<p><strong>SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: </strong>Not registered Tweetable abstract Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers occur frequently in pediatric populations, prolonging their hospitalization and increasing the healthcare cost.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103843

Alternate Title

Int J Nurs Stud

PMID

33373805

Title

Increasing healthcare workers' uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination in a tertiary-care pediatric hospital in Greece with a low-cost, tailor-made, multifaceted strategy.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 May 16

ISSN Number

1873-2518

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Healthcare workers' (HCW) seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV) is critical to prevent nosocomial influenza. However, HCW vaccination rates remain unacceptably low in many European institutions. A two-year three-step initiative was implemented at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital with 750 beds in Athens, Greece with the aim of increasing SIV among HCW.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Α cross-sectional anonymous survey of HCWs was conducted during the 2015-16 influenza season with the aim to evaluate attitudes, knowledge, and specific barriers and facilitators for SIV. Stratified analysis was used to identify factors associated with no prior history of influenza vaccination. Multifaceted interventions were implemented in the 2016-2017 season. These included 1) education around influenza disease and SIV, and 2) communication of availability and opportunity (time and place) of SIV. Interventions were designed to target HCWs with the lowest SIV rates in the previous three years.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We achieved a 67% response rate, with 363 respondents (106 doctors, 145 nurses, 101 other hospital staff; 11 did not provide their profession). Most (64%) had not been vaccinated in the previous three years; only 14% received the vaccine annually. Non-vaccination rates were significantly higher among nurses (76%) and cleaning and food-service workers (73%) compared to doctors (40%) (P&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;0.001). Protection of self, family, patients and colleagues were the most common motivations. Concerns about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine, the belief that one does not belong to a high-risk group were the most common barriers. The interventions led to an increase in SIV uptake by the HCWs in the hospital, from 19% to 31%.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In a country with very low reported rates of vaccination among HCWs, a simple, low-cost, tailor-made intervention strategy can lead to an increase in SIV uptake. Stratifying data according to vaccination history may reveal a diversity of targets for improvement that might otherwise be missed.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.vaccine.2020.05.021

Alternate Title

Vaccine

PMID

32430148

Title

Antibiotic prescribing and expenditures in outpatient paediatrics in Greece, 2010-13.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

2405-8

Date Published

08/2015

ISSN Number

1460-2091

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>The objectives of this study were to provide a nationally representative analysis of antibiotic prescribing in outpatient paediatrics and to assess overall and class-specific antibiotic costs in Greece.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Data on antibiotic prescriptions for patients aged ≤19 years old between July 2010 and June 2013 in Greece were extracted from the IMS Health Xponent database. Antibiotics were grouped into narrow- and broad-spectrum agents. The number of prescribed antibiotics and census denominators were used to calculate prescribing rates. The total costs associated with prescribed antibiotics were calculated.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>More than 7 million antibiotics were prescribed during the study period, with an annual rate of 1100 antibiotics/1000 persons. Prescribing rates were higher among children aged &lt;10 years old. Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) accounted for 80% of prescribed antibiotics, with acute otitis media (22.3%), acute tonsillitis (19.5%) and acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis (13.9%) being the most common clinical diagnoses. Cephalosporins (32.9%), penicillins (32.3%) and macrolides (32.1%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotic classes. The majority (90.4%) of antibiotics were broad spectrum. Antibiotic expenditures totalled ∼€50 million.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing is common in outpatient paediatric patients. These data provide important targets to inform the development of an outpatient antimicrobial stewardship programme targeting specific practices, providers and conditions.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jac/dkv091

Alternate Title

J. Antimicrob. Chemother.

PMID

25881618

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