First name
Kimberly
Middle name
S
Last name
Quayle

Title

Clinical Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Injury preceding Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

100-104

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

Previous studies have identified more severe acidosis and higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as risk factors for cerebral injury during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children; however, cerebral injury also can occur before DKA treatment. We found that lower pH and higher BUN levels also were associated with cerebral injury at presentation.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.07.033

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

35944716

Title

Clinical Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Injury Preceding Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

Previous studies have identified more severe acidosis and higher blood urea nitrogen (BUN) as risk factors for cerebral injury during treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children; however, cerebral injury also can occur before DKA treatment. We found that lower pH and higher BUN levels also were associated with cerebral injury at presentation.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2022.07.033

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

35944716

Title

Serious Bacterial Infections in Young Febrile Infants With Positive Urinalysis Results.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

09/2022

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

 

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis in febrile infants ≤60 days of age with positive urinalysis (UA) results.

METHODS: Secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of noncritical febrile infants ≤60 days between 2011 and 2019 conducted in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network emergency departments. Participants had temperatures ≥38°C and were evaluated with blood cultures and had UAs available for analysis. We report the prevalence of bacteremia and bacterial meningitis in those with and without positive UA results.

RESULTS: Among 7180 infants, 1090 (15.2%) had positive UA results. The risk of bacteremia was higher in those with positive versus negative UA results (63/1090 [5.8%] vs 69/6090 [1.1%], difference 4.7% [3.3% to 6.1%]). There was no difference in the prevalence of bacterial meningitis in infants ≤28 days of age with positive versus negative UA results (∼1% in both groups). However, among 697 infants aged 29 to 60 days with positive UA results, there were no cases of bacterial meningitis in comparison to 9 of 4153 with negative UA results (0.2%, difference -0.2% [-0.4% to -0.1%]). In addition, there were no cases of bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis in the 148 infants ≤60 days of age with positive UA results who had the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network low-risk blood thresholds of absolute neutrophil count <4 × 103 cells/mm3 and procalcitonin <0.5 ng/mL.

CONCLUSIONS: Among noncritical febrile infants ≤60 days of age with positive UA results, there were no cases of bacterial meningitis in those aged 29 to 60 days and no cases of bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis in any low-risk infants based on low-risk blood thresholds in both months of life. These findings can guide lumbar puncture use and other clinical decision making.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-055633

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

36097858

Title

Serum Sodium Concentration and Mental Status in Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 09

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is typically characterized by low or low-normal serum sodium concentrations, which rise as hyperglycemia resolves. In retrospective studies, researchers found associations between declines in sodium concentrations during DKA and cerebral injury. We prospectively investigated determinants of sodium concentration changes and associations with mental status alterations during DKA.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using data from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in Diabetic Ketoacidosis Trial, we compared children who had declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations with those who had rising or stable concentrations. Children were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intravenous fluid protocols that differed in infusion rate and sodium content. Data from the first 4, 8, and 12 hours of treatment were analyzed for 1251, 1086, and 877 episodes, respectively.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In multivariable analyses, declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations were associated with higher sodium and chloride concentrations at presentation and with previously diagnosed diabetes. Treatment with 0.45% (vs 0.9%) sodium chloride fluids was also associated with declines in sodium concentration; however, higher rates of fluid infusion were associated with declines in sodium concentration only at 12 hours. Frequencies of abnormal Glasgow Coma Scale scores and clinical diagnoses of cerebral injury were similar in patients with and without declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Changes in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations during DKA treatment are influenced by the balance of free-water loss versus sodium loss at presentation and the sodium content of intravenous fluids. Declines in glucose-corrected sodium concentrations are not associated with mental status changes during treatment.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-050243

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

34373322

Title

Effects of Fluid Rehydration Strategy on Correction of Acidosis and Electrolyte Abnormalities in Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jun 29

ISSN Number

1935-5548

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Fluid replacement to correct dehydration, acidosis, and electrolyte abnormalities is the cornerstone of treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), but little is known about optimal fluid infusion rates and electrolyte content. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether different fluid protocols affect the rate of normalization of biochemical derangements during DKA treatment.</p>

<p><strong>RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: </strong>The current analysis involved moderate or severe DKA episodes ( = 714) in children age &lt;18 years enrolled in the Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in DKA (FLUID) Trial. Children were assigned to one of four treatment groups using a 2 × 2 factorial design (0.90% or 0.45% saline and fast or slow rate of administration).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The rate of change of pH did not differ by treatment arm, but Pco increased more rapidly in the fast versus slow fluid infusion arms during the initial 4 h of treatment. The anion gap also decreased more rapidly in the fast versus slow infusion arms during the initial 4 and 8 h. Glucose-corrected sodium levels remained stable in patients assigned to 0.90% saline but decreased in those assigned to 0.45% saline at 4 and 8 h. Potassium levels decreased, while chloride levels increased more rapidly with 0.90% versus 0.45% saline. Hyperchloremic acidosis occurred more frequently in patients in the fast arms (46.1%) versus the slow arms (35.2%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In children treated for DKA, faster fluid administration rates led to a more rapid normalization of anion gap and Pco than slower fluid infusion rates but were associated with an increased frequency of hyperchloremic acidosis.</p>

DOI

10.2337/dc20-3113

Alternate Title

Diabetes Care

PMID

34187840

Title

Frequency and Risk Factors of Acute Kidney Injury During Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children and Association With Neurocognitive Outcomes.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e2025481

Date Published

2020 Dec 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly during diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children, but the underlying mechanisms and associations are unclear.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To investigate risk factors for AKI and its association with neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric DKA.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cohort study was a secondary analysis of data from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in DKA Study, a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial comparing fluid protocols for pediatric DKA in 13 US hospitals. Included DKA episodes occurred among children age younger than 18 years with blood glucose 300 mg/dL or greater and venous pH less than 7.25 or serum bicarbonate level less than 15 mEq/L.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>DKA requiring intravenous insulin therapy.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>AKI occurrence and stage were assessed using serum creatinine measurements using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria. DKA episodes with and without AKI were compared using univariable and multivariable methods, exploring associated factors.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 1359 DKA episodes (mean [SD] patient age, 11.6 [4.1] years; 727 [53.5%] girls; 651 patients [47.9%] with new-onset diabetes), AKI occurred in 584 episodes (43%; 95% CI, 40%-46%). A total of 252 AKI events (43%; 95% CI, 39%-47%) were stage 2 or 3. Multivariable analyses identified older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] per 1 year, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09; P = .03), higher initial serum urea nitrogen (AOR per 1 mg/dL increase, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11-1.18; P &lt; .001), higher heart rate (AOR for 1-SD increase in z-score, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.32; P &lt; .001), higher glucose-corrected sodium (AOR per 1 mEq/L increase, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.06; P = .001) and glucose concentrations (AOR per 100 mg/dL increase, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07-1.32; P = .001), and lower pH (AOR per 0.1 increase, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51-0.78; P &lt; .001) as variables associated with AKI. Children with AKI, compared with those without, had lower scores on tests of short-term memory during DKA (mean [SD] digit span recall: 6.8 [2.4] vs 7.6 [2.2]; P = .02) and lower mean (SD) IQ scores 3 to 6 months after recovery from DKA (100.0 [12.2] vs 103.5 [13.2]; P = .005). Differences persisted after adjusting for DKA severity and demographic factors, including socioeconomic status.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>These findings suggest that AKI may occur more frequently in children with greater acidosis and circulatory volume depletion during DKA and may be part of a pattern of multiple organ injury involving the kidneys and brain.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.25481

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

33275152

Title

Cognitive Function Following Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children With New-Onset or Previously Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 22

ISSN Number

1935-5548

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>This study assessed whether a single diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) episode is associated with cognitive declines in children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and whether the same is true in children who had previously been diagnosed after accounting for variations in glycemic control and other relevant factors.</p>

<p><strong>RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: </strong>We prospectively enrolled 758 children, 6-18 years old, who presented with DKA in a randomized multisite clinical trial evaluating intravenous fluid protocols for DKA treatment. DKA was moderate/severe in 430 children and mild in 328 children. A total of 392 children with DKA had new onset of type 1 diabetes, and the rest were previously diagnosed. Neurocognitive assessment occurred 2-6 months after the DKA episode. A comparison group of 376 children with type 1 diabetes, but no DKA exposure, was also enrolled.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among all patients, moderate/severe DKA was associated with lower intelligence quotient (IQ) (β = -0.12, &lt; 0.001), item-color recall (β = -0.08, = 0.010), and forward digit span (β = -0.06, = 0.04). Among newly diagnosed patients, moderate/severe DKA was associated with lower item-color recall (β = -0.08, = 0.04). Among previously diagnosed patients, repeated DKA exposure and higher HbA were independently associated with lower IQ (β = -0.10 and β = -0.09, respectively, &lt; 0.01) and higher HbA was associated with lower item-color recall (β = -0.10, = 0.007) after hypoglycemia, diabetes duration, and socioeconomic status were accounted for.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A single DKA episode is associated with subtle memory declines soon after type 1 diabetes diagnosis. Sizable IQ declines are detectable in children with known diabetes, suggesting that DKA effects may be exacerbated in children with chronic exposure to hyperglycemia.</p>

DOI

10.2337/dc20-0187

Alternate Title

Diabetes Care

PMID

32962981

Title

Hypertension During Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 May 06

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To characterize hemodynamic alterations occurring during diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in a large cohort of children and to identify clinical and biochemical factors associated with hypertension.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>This was a planned secondary analysis of data from the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) Fluid Therapies Under Investigation in DKA (FLUID) Study, a randomized clinical trial of fluid resuscitation protocols for children in DKA. Hemodynamic data (heart rate, blood pressure) from children with DKA were assessed in comparison with normal values for age and sex. Multivariable statistical modeling was used to explore clinical and laboratory predictors of hypertension.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 1258 DKA episodes, hypertension was documented at presentation in 154 (12.2%) and developed during DKA treatment in an additional 196 (15.6%), resulting in a total of 350 DKA episodes (27.8%) in which hypertension occurred at some time. Factors associated with hypertension at presentation included more severe acidosis, (lower pH and lower PCO), and stage 2 or 3 Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). More severe acidosis and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were associated with hypertension occurring at any time during DKA treatment.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Despite dehydration, hypertension occurs in a substantial number of children with DKA. Factors associated with hypertension include greater severity of acidosis, lower PCO and lower GCS scores during DKA treatment, suggesting that hypertension might be centrally mediated.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.04.066

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

32387716

Title

Clinical Trial of Fluid Infusion Rates for Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

2275-2287

Date Published

2018 06 14

ISSN Number

1533-4406

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Diabetic ketoacidosis in children may cause brain injuries ranging from mild to severe. Whether intravenous fluids contribute to these injuries has been debated for decades.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a 13-center, randomized, controlled trial that examined the effects of the rate of administration and the sodium chloride content of intravenous fluids on neurologic outcomes in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. Children were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups in a 2-by-2 factorial design (0.9% or 0.45% sodium chloride content and rapid or slow rate of administration). The primary outcome was a decline in mental status (two consecutive Glasgow Coma Scale scores of &lt;14, on a scale ranging from 3 to 15, with lower scores indicating worse mental status) during treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis. Secondary outcomes included clinically apparent brain injury during treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis, short-term memory during treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis, and memory and IQ 2 to 6 months after recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 1389 episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis were reported in 1255 children. The Glasgow Coma Scale score declined to less than 14 in 48 episodes (3.5%), and clinically apparent brain injury occurred in 12 episodes (0.9%). No significant differences among the treatment groups were observed with respect to the percentage of episodes in which the Glasgow Coma Scale score declined to below 14, the magnitude of decline in the Glasgow Coma Scale score, or the duration of time in which the Glasgow Coma Scale score was less than 14; with respect to the results of the tests of short-term memory; or with respect to the incidence of clinically apparent brain injury during treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis. Memory and IQ scores obtained after the children's recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis also did not differ significantly among the groups. Serious adverse events other than altered mental status were rare and occurred with similar frequency in all treatment groups.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Neither the rate of administration nor the sodium chloride content of intravenous fluids significantly influenced neurologic outcomes in children with diabetic ketoacidosis. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Health Resources and Services Administration; PECARN DKA FLUID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00629707 .).</p>

DOI

10.1056/NEJMoa1716816

Alternate Title

N. Engl. J. Med.

PMID

29897851

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