First name
Marc
Middle name
R
Last name
Gastonguay

Title

A Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Tobramycin in Patients Less than Five Years of Age with Cystic Fibrosis: Assessment of Target Attainment with Extended-Interval Dosing through Simulation.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e0237721

Date Published

2022 Apr 28

ISSN Number

1098-6596

Abstract

<p>Extended interval dosing of tobramycin is recommended for treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in adults and older children with cystic fibrosis (CF), but data are limited in patients less than 5 years of age. We performed a retrospective population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis of hospitalized children with CF &lt;5 years of age prescribed intravenous tobramycin for a pulmonary exacerbation from March 2011 to September 2018 at our hospital. Children with normal renal function who had ≥1 tobramycin concentration available were included. Nonlinear mixed effects population PK modeling was performed using NONMEM using data from the first 48 h of tobramycin treatment. Monte Carlo simulations were implemented to determine the fraction of simulated patients that met published therapeutic targets with regimens of 10-15 mg/kg/day once-daily dosing. Fifty-eight patients received 111 tobramycin courses (range 1-9/patient). A two-compartment model best described the data. Age, glomerular filtration rate, and vancomycin coadministration were significant covariates on tobramycin clearance. The typical values of clearance and central volume of distribution were 0.252 L/hr/kg^0.75 and 0.308 L/kg, respectively. No once-daily regimens achieved all pre-specified targets simultaneously in &gt;75% of simulated subjects. A dosage of 13 mg/kg/dose best met the predefined targets of C &gt;25 mg/L and AUC of 80-120 mg·h/L. Based on our population PK analysis and simulations, once-daily dosing of tobramycin would not achieve all therapeutic goals in young patients with CF. However, extended-interval dosing regimens may attain therapeutic targets in the majority of young patients.</p>

DOI

10.1128/aac.02377-21

Alternate Title

Antimicrob Agents Chemother

PMID

35481751

Title

Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 are associated with extensive efavirenz pharmacokinetics and CNS toxicities in an HIV cohort in Botswana.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Jun 01

ISSN Number

1473-1150

Abstract

<p>Inter-individual variability in efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics and dynamics is dominantly driven by the polymorphism in cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 2B6 516G&gt;T. We hypothesized that additional CYP polymorphisms mediate the relationship between CYP2B6 516G&gt;T, EFV metabolism, and clinical events. We investigated 21 SNPs in 814 HIV-infected adults initiating EFV-based therapy in Botswana for population pharmacokinetics, CNS toxicities, and treatment outcomes. Two SNPs (rs28399499 and rs28399433) showed reduced apparent oral EFV clearance. Four SNPs (rs2279345, rs4803417, rs4802101, and rs61663607) showed extensive clearance. Composite CYP2B-mediated EFV metabolism was significantly associated with CNS toxicity (p = 0.04), with extensive metabolizers reporting more and slow and very slow metabolizers reporting less toxicity after 1 month compared to intermediate metabolizers. Composite CYP2B6 metabolism was not associated with composite early treatment failure. In conclusion, our data suggest that CNS-related toxicities might not be solely the result of super-therapeutic parent EFV concentrations in HIV-infected individuals in patients of African ancestry.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41397-018-0028-2

Alternate Title

Pharmacogenomics J.

PMID

29855606

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