First name
Sanyukta
Last name
Desai

Title

Epidemiology and Etiology of Invasive Bacterial Infection in Infants ≤60 Days Old Treated in Emergency Departments.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 May 18

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To help guide empiric treatment of infants ≤60 days old with suspected invasive bacterial infection by describing pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old with invasive bacterial infection (bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis) evaluated in the emergency departments of 11 children's hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Each site's microbiology laboratory database or electronic medical record system was queried to identify infants from whom a bacterial pathogen was isolated from either blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Medical records of these infants were reviewed to confirm the presence of a pathogen and to obtain demographic, clinical, and laboratory data.

RESULTS: Of the 442 infants with invasive bacterial infection, 353 (79.9%) had bacteremia without meningitis, 64 (14.5%) had bacterial meningitis with bacteremia, and 25 (5.7%) had bacterial meningitis without bacteremia. The peak number of cases of invasive bacterial infection occurred in the second week of life; 364 (82.4%) infants were febrile. Group B streptococcus was the most common pathogen identified (36.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (30.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.7%), and Enterococcus spp (6.6%). Overall, 96.8% of pathogens were susceptible to ampicillin plus a third-generation cephalosporin, 96.0% to ampicillin plus gentamicin, and 89.2% to third-generation cephalosporins alone.

CONCLUSIONS: For most infants ≤60 days old evaluated in a pediatric emergency department for suspected invasive bacterial infection, the combination of ampicillin plus either gentamicin or a third-generation cephalosporin is an appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment regimen. Of the pathogens isolated from infants with invasive bacterial infection, 11% were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins alone.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.04.033

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

29784512

Title

Time to Pathogen Detection for Non-ill Versus Ill-Appearing Infants ≤60 Days Old With Bacteremia and Meningitis.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Jun 28

ISSN Number

2154-1663

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the time to pathogen detection in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for infants ≤60 days old with bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis and to explore whether time to pathogen detection differed for non-ill-appearing and ill-appearing infants.

METHODS: We included infants ≤60 days old with bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis evaluated in the emergency departments of 10 children's hospitals between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2016. The microbiology laboratories at each site were queried to identify infants in whom a bacterial pathogen was isolated from blood and/or CSF. Medical records were then reviewed to confirm the presence of a pathogen and to extract demographic characteristics, clinical appearance, and the time to pathogen detection.

RESULTS: Among 360 infants with bacteremia, 316 (87.8%) pathogens were detected within 24 hours and 343 (95.3%) within 36 hours. A lower proportion of non-ill-appearing infants with bacteremia had a pathogen detected on blood culture within 24 hours compared with ill-appearing infants (85.0% vs 92.9%, respectively; = .03). Among 62 infants with bacterial meningitis, 55 (88.7%) pathogens were detected within 24 hours and 59 (95.2%) were detected within 36 hours, with no difference based on ill appearance.

CONCLUSIONS: Among infants ≤60 days old with bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis, pathogens were commonly identified from blood or CSF within 24 and 36 hours. However, clinicians must weigh the potential for missed bacteremia in non-ill-appearing infants discharged within 24 hours against the overall low prevalence of infection.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2018-0002

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

29954839

Title

Risk Stratification of Febrile Infants ≤60 Days Old Without Routine Lumbar Puncture.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Nov 13

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

: media-1vid110.1542/5840460609001PEDS-VA_2018-1879 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Rochester and modified Philadelphia criteria for the risk stratification of febrile infants with invasive bacterial infection (IBI) who do not appear ill without routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing.

METHODS: We performed a case-control study of febrile infants ≤60 days old presenting to 1 of 9 emergency departments from 2011 to 2016. For each infant with IBI (defined as a blood [bacteremia] and/or CSF [bacterial meningitis] culture with growth of a pathogen), controls without IBI were matched by site and date of visit. Infants were excluded if they appeared ill or had a complex chronic condition or if data for any component of the Rochester or modified Philadelphia criteria were missing.

RESULTS: Overall, 135 infants with IBI (118 [87.4%] with bacteremia without meningitis and 17 [12.6%] with bacterial meningitis) and 249 controls were included. The sensitivity of the modified Philadelphia criteria was higher than that of the Rochester criteria (91.9% vs 81.5%; = .01), but the specificity was lower (34.5% vs 59.8%; < .001). Among 67 infants >28 days old with IBI, the sensitivity of both criteria was 83.6%; none of the 11 low-risk infants had bacterial meningitis. Of 68 infants ≤28 days old with IBI, 14 (20.6%) were low risk per the Rochester criteria, and 2 had meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS: The modified Philadelphia criteria had high sensitivity for IBI without routine CSF testing, and all infants >28 days old with bacterial meningitis were classified as high risk. Because some infants with bacteremia were classified as low risk, infants discharged from the emergency department without CSF testing require close follow-up.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-1879

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

30425130

Title

A Prediction Model to Identify Febrile Infants ≤60 Days at Low Risk of Invasive Bacterial Infection.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jun 05

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To derive and internally validate a prediction model for the identification of febrile infants ≤60 days old at low probability of invasive bacterial infection (IBI).

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of febrile infants ≤60 days old who presented to the emergency departments of 11 hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Infants with IBI, defined by growth of a pathogen in blood (bacteremia) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (bacterial meningitis), were matched by hospital and date of visit to 2 control patients without IBI. Ill-appearing infants and those with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Predictors of IBI were identified with multiple logistic regression and internally validated with 10-fold cross-validation, and an IBI score was calculated.

RESULTS: We included 181 infants with IBI (155 [85.6%] with bacteremia without meningitis and 26 [14.4%] with bacterial meningitis) and 362 control patients. Twenty-three infants with IBI (12.7%) and 138 control patients (38.1%) had fever by history only. Four predictors of IBI were identified (area under the curve 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.86]) and incorporated into an IBI score: age <21 days (1 point), highest temperature recorded in the emergency department 38.0-38.4°C (2 points) or ≥38.5°C (4 points), absolute neutrophil count ≥5185 cells per μL (2 points), and abnormal urinalysis results (3 points). The sensitivity and specificity of a score ≥2 were 98.8% (95% CI: 95.7%-99.9%) and 31.3% (95% CI: 26.3%-36.6%), respectively. All 26 infants with meningitis had scores ≥2.

CONCLUSIONS: Infants ≤60 days old with fever by history only, a normal urinalysis result, and an absolute neutrophil count <5185 cells per μL have a low probability of IBI.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-3604

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31167938

Title

Febrile Infants ≤60 Days Old With Positive Urinalysis Results and Invasive Bacterial Infections.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 25

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of febrile infants ≤60 days old with positive urinalysis results and invasive bacterial infections (IBI).

METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of febrile infants ≤60 days old with IBI who presented to 11 emergency departments from July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016. For this subanalysis, we included infants with IBI and positive urinalysis results. We analyzed the sensitivity of high-risk past medical history (PMH) (prematurity, chronic medical condition, or recent antimicrobial receipt), ill appearance, and/or abnormal white blood cell (WBC) count (<5000 or >15 000 cells/μL) for identification of IBI.

RESULTS: Of 148 febrile infants with positive urinalysis results and IBI, 134 (90.5%) had bacteremia without meningitis and 14 (9.5%) had bacterial meningitis (11 with concomitant bacteremia). Thirty-five infants (23.6%) with positive urinalysis results and IBI did not have urinary tract infections. The presence of high-risk PMH, ill appearance, and/or abnormal WBC count had a sensitivity of 53.4% (95% confidence interval: 45.0-61.6) for identification of IBI. Of the 14 infants with positive urinalysis results and concomitant bacterial meningitis, 7 were 29 to 60 days old. Six of these 7 infants were ill-appearing or had an abnormal WBC count. The other infant had bacteremia with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis after antimicrobial pretreatment and was treated for meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of high-risk PMH, ill appearance, and/or abnormal WBC count is suboptimal for identifying febrile infants with positive urinalysis results at low risk for IBI. Most infants with positive urinalysis results and bacterial meningitis are ≤28 days old, ill-appearing, or have an abnormal WBC count.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-000638

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

33239319

Title

Characteristics of Afebrile Infants ≤60 Days of Age With Invasive Bacterial Infections.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

100-105

Date Published

2021 Jan

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of afebrile infants ≤60 days old with invasive bacterial infection (IBI).

METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old with IBI presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of 11 children's hospitals from 2011 to 2016. We classified infants as afebrile if there was absence of a temperature ≥38°C at home, at the referring clinic, or in the ED. Bacteremia and bacterial meningitis were defined as pathogenic bacterial growth from a blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture.

RESULTS: Of 440 infants with IBI, 78 (18%) were afebrile. Among afebrile infants, 62 (79%) had bacteremia without meningitis and 16 (20%) had bacterial meningitis (10 with concomitant bacteremia). Five infants (6%) died, all with bacteremia. The most common pathogens were (35%), (16%), and (16%). Sixty infants (77%) had an abnormal triage vital sign (temperature <36°C, heart rate ≥181 beats per minute, or respiratory rate ≥66 breaths per minute) or a physical examination abnormality (ill appearance, full or depressed fontanelle, increased work of breathing, or signs of focal infection). Forty-three infants (55%) had ≥1 of the following laboratory abnormalities: white blood cell count <5000 or >15 000 cells per μL, absolute band count >1500 cells per μl, or positive urinalysis. Presence of an abnormal vital sign, examination finding, or laboratory test result had a sensitivity of 91% (95% confidence interval 82%-96%) for IBI.

CONCLUSIONS: Most afebrile young infants with an IBI had vital sign, examination, or laboratory abnormalities. Future studies should evaluate the predictive ability of these criteria in afebrile infants undergoing evaluation for IBI.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-002204

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

33318052

Title

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Testing and Treatment Among Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

760-763

Date Published

2021 Jul

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To describe testing and treatment practices for () among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. We included children 3 months to 18 years old hospitalized with CAP between 2012 and 2018 and excluded children who were transferred from another hospital and those with complex chronic conditions. We examined the proportion of patients receiving testing and macrolide therapy at the hospital level and trends in testing and macrolide prescription over time. At the patient level, we examined differences in demographics, illness severity (eg, blood gas, chest tube placement), and outcomes (eg, ICU admission, length of stay, readmission) among patients with and without testing.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 103 977 children hospitalized with CAP, 17.3% underwent testing and 31.1% received macrolides. We found no correlation between testing and macrolide treatment at the hospital level ( = 0.05; = .11). Patients tested for were more likely to have blood gas analysis (15.8% vs 12.8%; &lt; .1), chest tube placement (1.4% vs 0.8%; &lt; .1), and ICU admission (3.1% vs 1.4%; &lt; .1). testing increased (from 15.8% to 18.6%; &lt; .001), and macrolide prescription decreased (from 40.9% to 20.6%; &lt; .001) between 2012 and 2018.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Nearly one-third of hospitalized children with CAP received macrolide antibiotics, although macrolide prescription decreased over time. Clinicians were more likely to perform testing in children with severe illness, and testing and macrolide treatment were not correlated at the hospital level.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-005215

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

34583319

Title

Height of fever and invasive bacterial infection.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 20

ISSN Number

1468-2044

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>We aimed to evaluate the association of height of fever with invasive bacterial infection (IBI) among febrile infants &lt;=60 days of age.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In a secondary analysis of a multicentre case-control study of non-ill-appearing febrile infants &lt;=60 days of age, we compared the maximum temperature (at home or in the emergency department) for infants with and without IBI. We then computed interval likelihood ratios (iLRs) for the diagnosis of IBI at each half-degree Celsius interval.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The median temperature was higher for infants with IBI (38.8°C; IQR 38.4-39.2) compared with those without IBI (38.4°C; IQR 38.2-38.9) (p&lt;0.001). Temperatures 39°C-39.4°C and 39.5°C-39.9°C were associated with a higher likelihood of IBI (iLR 2.49 and 3.40, respectively), although 30.4% of febrile infants with IBI had maximum temperatures &lt;38.5°C.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Although IBI is more likely with higher temperatures, height of fever alone should not be used for risk stratification of febrile infants.</p>

DOI

10.1136/archdischild-2019-318548

Alternate Title

Arch. Dis. Child.

PMID

32819913

Title

Predictors of Bacteremia in Children Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Sep 13

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>The yield of blood cultures in children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is low. Characteristics of children at increased risk of bacteremia remain largely unknown.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of children aged 3 months to 18 years hospitalized with CAP in 6 children's hospitals from 2007 to 2011. We excluded children with complex chronic conditions and children without blood cultures performed at admission. Clinical, laboratory, microbiologic, and radiologic data were assessed to identify predictors of bacteremia.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 7509 children hospitalized with CAP, 2568 (34.2%) had blood cultures performed on the first day of hospitalization. The median age was 3 years. Sixty-five children with blood cultures performed had bacteremia (2.5%), and 11 children (0.4%) had bacteremia with a penicillin-nonsusceptible pathogen. The prevalence of bacteremia was increased in children with a white blood cell count &gt;20 × 10 cells per µL (5.4%; 95% confidence interval 3.5%-8.1%) and in children with definite radiographic pneumonia (3.3%; 95% confidence interval 2.4%-4.4%); however, the prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible bacteremia was below 1% even in the presence of individual predictors. Among children hospitalized outside of the ICU, the prevalence of contaminated blood cultures exceeded the prevalence of penicillin-nonsusceptible bacteremia.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Although the prevalence of bacteremia is marginally higher among children with leukocytosis or radiographic pneumonia, the rates remain low, and penicillin-nonsusceptible bacteremia is rare even in the presence of these predictors. Blood cultures should not be obtained in children hospitalized with CAP in a non-ICU setting.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2019-0149

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

31519736

Title

Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy Duration in Young Infants With Bacteremic Urinary Tract Infections.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Aug 20

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the association between parenteral antibiotic duration and outcomes in infants ≤60 days old with bacteremic urinary tract infection (UTI).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This multicenter retrospective cohort study included infants ≤60 days old who had concomitant growth of a pathogen in blood and urine cultures at 11 children's hospitals between 2011 and 2016. Short-course parenteral antibiotic duration was defined as ≤7 days, and long-course parenteral antibiotic duration was defined as &gt;7 days. Propensity scores, calculated using patient characteristics, were used to determine the likelihood of receiving long-course parenteral antibiotics. We conducted inverse probability weighting to achieve covariate balance and applied marginal structural models to the weighted population to examine the association between parenteral antibiotic duration and outcomes (30-day UTI recurrence, 30-day all-cause reutilization, and length of stay).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 115 infants with bacteremic UTI, 58 (50%) infants received short-course parenteral antibiotics. Infants who received long-course parenteral antibiotics were more likely to be ill appearing and have growth of a non- organism. There was no difference in adjusted 30-day UTI recurrence between the long- and short-course groups (adjusted risk difference: 3%; 95% confidence interval: -5.8 to 12.7) or 30-day all-cause reutilization (risk difference: 3%; 95% confidence interval: -14.5 to 20.6).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Young infants with bacteremic UTI who received ≤7 days of parenteral antibiotics did not have more frequent recurrent UTIs or hospital reutilization compared with infants who received long-course therapy. Short-course parenteral therapy with early conversion to oral antibiotics may be considered in this population.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-3844

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31431480

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