Leading initial
M
First name
Monica
Last name
Gramatges

Title

Absolute lymphocyte count recovery following initial acute myelogenous leukemia therapy: Implications for adoptive cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e30062

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

BACKGROUND: An adequate absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) is an essential first step in autologous chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell manufacturing. For patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the intensity of chemotherapy received may affect adequate ALC recovery required for CAR T-cell production. We sought to analyze ALC following each course of upfront therapy as one metric for CAR T-cell manufacturing feasibility in children and young adults with AML.

PROCEDURE: ALC data were collected from an observational study of patients with newly diagnosed AML between the ages of 1 month and 21 years who received treatment between the years of 2006 and 2018 at one of three hospitals in the Leukemia Electronic Abstraction of Records Network (LEARN) consortium.

RESULTS: Among 193 patients with sufficient ALC data for analysis, the median ALC following induction 1 was 1715 cells/μl (interquartile range: 1166-2388), with successive decreases in ALC with each subsequent course. Similarly, the proportion of patients achieving an ALC >400 cells/μl decreased following each course, ranging from 98.4% (190/193) after course 1 to 66.7% (22/33) for patients who received a fifth course of therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a successive decline of ALC recovery with subsequent courses of chemotherapy. Despite this decline, ALC values are likely sufficient to consider apheresis prior to the initiation of each course of upfront therapy for the majority of newly diagnosed pediatric AML patients, thereby providing a window of opportunity for T-cell collection for those patients identified at high risk of relapse or with refractory disease.

DOI

10.1002/pbc.30062

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

36370087

Title

Rates of laboratory adverse events by course in paediatric leukaemia ascertained with automated electronic health record extraction: a retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e678-e688

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

2352-3026

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Adverse events are often misreported in clinical trials, leading to an incomplete understanding of toxicities. We aimed to test automated laboratory adverse event ascertainment and grading (via the ExtractEHR automated package) to assess its scalability and define adverse event rates for children with acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group (COG), we included patients aged 0-22 years treated for acute myeloid leukaemia or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (Atlanta, GA, USA) from Jan 1, 2010, to Nov 1, 2018, at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014, and at the Texas Children's Hospital (Houston, TX, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014. The ExtractEHR automated package acquired, cleaned, and graded laboratory data as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5 for 22 commonly evaluated grade 3-4 adverse events (fatal events were not evaluated) with numerically based CTCAE definitions. Descriptive statistics tabulated adverse event frequencies. Adverse events ascertained by ExtractEHR were compared to manually reported adverse events for patients enrolled in two COG trials (AAML1031, NCT01371981; AALL0932, NCT02883049). Analyses were restricted to protocol-defined chemotherapy courses (induction I, induction II, intensification I, intensification II, and intensification III for acute myeloid leukaemia; induction, consolidation, interim maintenance, delayed intensification, and maintenance for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia).

FINDINGS: Laboratory adverse event data from 1077 patients (583 from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 200 from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and 294 from the Texas Children's Hospital) who underwent 4611 courses (549 for acute myeloid leukaemia and 4062 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) were extracted, processed, and graded. Of the 166 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, 86 (52%) were female, 80 (48%) were male, 96 (58%) were White, and 132 (80%) were non-Hispanic. Of the 911 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 406 (45%) were female, 505 (55%) were male, 596 (65%) were White, and 641 (70%) were non-Hispanic. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia had the most adverse events during induction I and intensification II. Hypokalaemia (one [17%] of six to 75 [48%] of 156 courses) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased (13 [10%] of 134 to 27 [17%] of 156 courses) were the most prevalent non-haematological adverse events in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, as identified by ExtractEHR. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had the greatest number of adverse events during induction and maintenance (eight adverse events with prevalence ≥10%; induction and maintenance: anaemia, platelet count decreased, white blood cell count decreased, neutrophil count decreased, lymphocyte count decreased, ALT increased, and hypocalcaemia; induction: hypokalaemia; maintenance: aspartate aminotransferase [AST] increased and blood bilirubin increased), as identified by ExtractEHR. 187 (85%) of 220 total comparisons in 22 adverse events in four AAML1031 and six AALL0923 courses were substantially higher with ExtractEHR than COG-reported adverse event rates for adverse events with a prevalence of at least 2%.

INTERPRETATION: ExtractEHR is scalable and accurately defines laboratory adverse event rates for paediatric acute leukaemia; moreover, ExtractEHR seems to detect higher rates of laboratory adverse events than those reported in COG trials. These rates can be used for comparisons between therapies and to counsel patients treated on or off trials about the risks of chemotherapy. ExtractEHR-based adverse event ascertainment can improve reporting of laboratory adverse events in clinical trials.

FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, St Baldrick's Foundation, and Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.

DOI

10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00168-5

Alternate Title

Lancet Haematol

PMID

35870472

Title

Rates of laboratory adverse events by course in paediatric leukaemia ascertained with automated electronic health record extraction: a retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e678-e688

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

2352-3026

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Adverse events are often misreported in clinical trials, leading to an incomplete understanding of toxicities. We aimed to test automated laboratory adverse event ascertainment and grading (via the ExtractEHR automated package) to assess its scalability and define adverse event rates for children with acute myeloid leukaemia and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

METHODS: For this retrospective cohort study from the Children's Oncology Group (COG), we included patients aged 0-22 years treated for acute myeloid leukaemia or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta (Atlanta, GA, USA) from Jan 1, 2010, to Nov 1, 2018, at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014, and at the Texas Children's Hospital (Houston, TX, USA) from Jan 1, 2011, to Dec 31, 2014. The ExtractEHR automated package acquired, cleaned, and graded laboratory data as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5 for 22 commonly evaluated grade 3-4 adverse events (fatal events were not evaluated) with numerically based CTCAE definitions. Descriptive statistics tabulated adverse event frequencies. Adverse events ascertained by ExtractEHR were compared to manually reported adverse events for patients enrolled in two COG trials (AAML1031, NCT01371981; AALL0932, NCT02883049). Analyses were restricted to protocol-defined chemotherapy courses (induction I, induction II, intensification I, intensification II, and intensification III for acute myeloid leukaemia; induction, consolidation, interim maintenance, delayed intensification, and maintenance for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia).

FINDINGS: Laboratory adverse event data from 1077 patients (583 from Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 200 from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and 294 from the Texas Children's Hospital) who underwent 4611 courses (549 for acute myeloid leukaemia and 4062 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia) were extracted, processed, and graded. Of the 166 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, 86 (52%) were female, 80 (48%) were male, 96 (58%) were White, and 132 (80%) were non-Hispanic. Of the 911 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 406 (45%) were female, 505 (55%) were male, 596 (65%) were White, and 641 (70%) were non-Hispanic. Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia had the most adverse events during induction I and intensification II. Hypokalaemia (one [17%] of six to 75 [48%] of 156 courses) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased (13 [10%] of 134 to 27 [17%] of 156 courses) were the most prevalent non-haematological adverse events in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia, as identified by ExtractEHR. Patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia had the greatest number of adverse events during induction and maintenance (eight adverse events with prevalence ≥10%; induction and maintenance: anaemia, platelet count decreased, white blood cell count decreased, neutrophil count decreased, lymphocyte count decreased, ALT increased, and hypocalcaemia; induction: hypokalaemia; maintenance: aspartate aminotransferase [AST] increased and blood bilirubin increased), as identified by ExtractEHR. 187 (85%) of 220 total comparisons in 22 adverse events in four AAML1031 and six AALL0923 courses were substantially higher with ExtractEHR than COG-reported adverse event rates for adverse events with a prevalence of at least 2%.

INTERPRETATION: ExtractEHR is scalable and accurately defines laboratory adverse event rates for paediatric acute leukaemia; moreover, ExtractEHR seems to detect higher rates of laboratory adverse events than those reported in COG trials. These rates can be used for comparisons between therapies and to counsel patients treated on or off trials about the risks of chemotherapy. ExtractEHR-based adverse event ascertainment can improve reporting of laboratory adverse events in clinical trials.

FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, St Baldrick's Foundation, and Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation.

DOI

10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00168-5

Alternate Title

Lancet Haematol

PMID

35870472

Title

Risk of bacterial bloodstream infection does not vary by central-line type during neutropenic periods in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1-8

Date Published

2022 Apr 25

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), due in part to the presence of central venous access devices (CVADs) required to deliver therapy.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To determine the differential risk of bacterial BSI during neutropenia by CVAD type in pediatric patients with AML.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a secondary analysis in a cohort of 560 pediatric patients (1,828 chemotherapy courses) receiving frontline AML chemotherapy at 17 US centers. The exposure was CVAD type at course start: tunneled externalized catheter (TEC), peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC), or totally implanted catheter (TIC). The primary outcome was course-specific incident bacterial BSI; secondary outcomes included mucosal barrier injury (MBI)-BSI and non-MBI BSI. Poisson regression was used to compute adjusted rate ratios comparing BSI occurrence during neutropenia by line type, controlling for demographic, clinical, and hospital-level characteristics.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The rate of BSI did not differ by CVAD type: 11 BSIs per 1,000 neutropenic days for TECs, 13.7 for PICCs, and 10.7 for TICs. After adjustment, there was no statistically significant association between CVAD type and BSI: PICC incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.32) and TIC IRR = 0.83 (95% CI, 0.49-1.41) compared to TEC. When MBI and non-MBI were examined separately, results were similar.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In this large, multicenter cohort of pediatric AML patients, we found no difference in the rate of BSI during neutropenia by CVAD type. This may be due to a risk-profile for BSI that is unique to AML patients.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2022.82

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

35465865

Title

Medical Outcomes, Quality of Life, and Family Perceptions for Outpatient vs Inpatient Neutropenia Management After Chemotherapy for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2128385

Date Published

2021 Oct 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) requires multiple courses of intensive chemotherapy that result in neutropenia, with significant risk for infectious complications. Supportive care guidelines recommend hospitalization until neutrophil recovery. However, there are little data to support inpatient over outpatient management.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate outpatient vs inpatient neutropenia management for pediatric AML.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cohort study used qualitative and quantitative methods to compare medical outcomes, patient health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and patient and family perceptions between outpatient and inpatient neutropenia management. The study included patients from 17 US pediatric hospitals with frontline chemotherapy start dates ranging from January 2011 to July 2019, although the specific date ranges differed for the individual analyses by design and relative timing. Data were analyzed from August 2019 to February 2020.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Discharge to outpatient vs inpatient neutropenia management.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary outcomes of interest were course-specific bacteremia incidence, times to next course, and patient HRQOL. Course-specific mortality was a secondary medical outcome.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Primary quantitative analyses included 554 patients (272 [49.1%] girls and 282 [50.9%] boys; mean [SD] age, 8.2 [6.1] years). Bacteremia incidence was not significantly different during outpatient vs inpatient management (67 courses [23.8%] vs 265 courses [29.0%]; adjusted rate ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.06; P = .08). Outpatient management was not associated with delays to the next course compared with inpatient management (mean [SD] 30.7 [12.2] days vs 32.8 [9.7] days; adjusted mean difference, -2.2; 95% CI, -4.1 to -0.2, P = .03). Mortality during intensification II was higher for patients who received outpatient management compared with those who received inpatient management (3 patients [5.4%] vs 1 patient [0.5%]; P = .03), but comparable with inpatient management at other courses (eg, 0 patients vs 5 patients [1.3%] during induction I; P = .59). Among 97 patients evaluated for HRQOL, outcomes did not differ between outpatient and inpatient management (mean [SD] Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory total score, 70.1 [18.9] vs 68.7 [19.4]; adjusted mean difference, -2.8; 95% CI, -11.2 to 5.6). A total of 86 respondents (20 [23.3%] in outpatient management, 66 [76.7%] in inpatient management) completed qualitative interviews. Independent of management strategy received, 74 respondents (86.0%) expressed satisfaction with their experience. Concerns for hospital-associated infections among caregivers (6 of 7 caregiver respondents [85.7%] who were dissatisfied with inpatient management) and family separation (2 of 2 patient respondents [100%] who were dissatisfied with inpatient management) drove dissatisfaction with inpatient management. Stress of caring for a neutropenic child at home (3 of 3 respondents [100%] who were dissatisfied with outpatient management) drove dissatisfaction with outpatient management.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>This cohort study found that outpatient neutropenia management was not associated with higher bacteremia incidence, treatment delays, or worse HRQOL compared with inpatient neutropenia management among pediatric patients with AML. While outpatient management may be safe for many patients, course-specific mortality differences suggest that outpatient management in intensification II should be approached with caution. Patient and family experiences varied, suggesting that outpatient management may be preferred by some but may not be feasible for all families. Further studies to refine and standardize safe outpatient management practices are warranted.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28385

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

34709389

Title

Identifying relapses and stem cell transplants in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia using administrative data: Capturing national outcomes irrespective of trial enrollment.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e28315

Date Published

2020 May 11

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Our objectives were to design and validate methods to identify relapse and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using administrative data representing hospitalizations at US pediatric institutions.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We developed daily billing and ICD-9 code definitions to identify relapses and HSCTs within a cohort of children with newly diagnosed ALL between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2013, previously assembled from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. Chart review for children with ALL at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and Texas Children's Hospital (TCH) was performed to establish relapse and HSCT gold standards for sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) calculations. We estimated incidences of relapse and HSCT in the PHIS ALL cohort.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 362 CHOP and 314 TCH ALL patients in PHIS and established true positives by chart review. Sensitivity and PPV for identifying both relapse and HSCT in PHIS were&nbsp;&gt;&nbsp;90% at both hospitals. Five-year relapse incidence in the 10&nbsp;150-patient PHIS cohort was 10.3% (95% CI 9.8%-10.9%) with 7.1% (6.6%-7.6%) of children underwent HSCTs. Patients in higher-risk demographic groups had higher relapse and HSCT rates. Our analysis also identified differences in incidences of relapse and HSCT by race, ethnicity, and insurance status.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Administrative data can be used to identify relapse and HSCT accurately in children with ALL whether they occur on- or off-therapy, in contrast with published approaches. This method has wide potential applicability for estimating these incidences in pediatric ALL, including patients not enrolled on clinical trials.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.28315

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

32391940

Title

An overview of disparities in childhood cancer: Report on the Inaugural Symposium on Childhood Cancer Health Disparities, Houston, Texas, 2016.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-16

Date Published

2018 May 08

ISSN Number

1521-0669

Abstract

<p>The Inaugural Symposium on Childhood Cancer Health Disparities was held in Houston, Texas, on November 2, 2016. The symposium was attended by 109 scientists and clinicians from diverse disciplinary backgrounds with interests in pediatric cancer disparities and focused on reviewing our current knowledge of disparities in cancer risk and outcomes for select childhood cancers. Following a full day of topical sessions, everyone participated in a brainstorming session to develop a working strategy for the continued expansion of research in this area. This meeting was designed to serve as a springboard for examination of childhood cancer disparities from a more unified and systematic approach and to enhance awareness of this area of need.</p>

DOI

10.1080/08880018.2018.1464088

Alternate Title

Pediatr Hematol Oncol

PMID

29737912

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