First name
Jonathan
Middle name
A
Last name
Mitchell

Title

Sex differences in childhood sleep and health implications.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

474-484

Date Published

2021 Sep

ISSN Number

1464-5033

Abstract

<p><strong>CONTEXT: </strong>Sleep is critical for optimal childhood metabolic health and neurodevelopment. However, there is limited knowledge regarding childhood sex differences in sleep, including children with neurodevelopmental disorders, and the impact of such differences on metabolic health.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To evaluate if sex differences in childhood sleep exist and if sleep associates with metabolic health outcomes equally by sex. Using autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a case study, we also examine sleep sex differences in children with a neurodevelopmental disorder.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A narrative review explored the literature focussing on sex differences in childhood sleep.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Sex differences in sleep were not detected among pre-adolescents. However, female adolescents were more likely to report impaired sleep than males. Childhood obesity is more common in males. Shorter sleep duration may be associated with obesity in male pre-adolescents/adolescents; although findings are mixed. ASD is male-predominant; yet, there was an indication that pre-adolescent female children with ASD had more impaired sleep.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Sex differences in sleep appear to emerge in adolescence with more impaired sleep in females. This trend was also observed among pre-adolescent female children with ASD. Further research is needed on sex differences in childhood sleep and metabolic health and the underlying mechanisms driving these differences.</p>

DOI

10.1080/03014460.2021.1998624

Alternate Title

Ann Hum Biol

PMID

35105205

Title

Sufficient sleep duration in autistic children and the role of physical activity.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

13623613211053671

Date Published

2022 Jan 06

ISSN Number

1461-7005

Abstract

<p><strong>LAY ABSTRACT: </strong>Higher levels of physical activity may be associated with improved sleep in children, but this relationship is still being determined, especially in autistic children. In this study, we used existing data from the 2018 National Survey of Children's Health. Caregivers of children 6-17 years old, including caregivers of autistic children, completed a questionnaire that included questions about physical activity (days active in the past week) and sleep duration. We then determined if children were obtaining the recommended hours of sleep for their age (i.e. sufficient sleep). We found that higher physical activity levels were associated with sufficient sleep duration, but this finding was weaker in autistic children. In particular, this association was not observed in autistic children with more severe autism spectrum disorder, female autistic children, and autistic children 6-12 years old. In conclusion, physical activity is a promising approach to help children obtain sufficient sleep duration. However, more personalized approaches to improving sleep may be needed for certain groups of autistic children.</p>

DOI

10.1177/13623613211053671

Alternate Title

Autism

PMID

34991371

Title

The relationship between autism spectrum and sleep-wake traits.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Dec 29

ISSN Number

1939-3806

Abstract

<p>Autistic children and adults often have sleep disturbances, which may affect their and their family's quality of life. Yet, the relationship between sleep-wake patterns and autism spectrum traits is understudied. Identifying such relationships could lead to future research elucidating common mechanistic underpinnings. Thus, we aimed to determine whether sleep-wake patterns, specifically related to sleep, physical activity, and the daily sleep-wake rhythm (i.e., circadian rhythm), are associated with autism spectrum-related traits. Accelerometer-derived sleep-wake parameters were estimated in individuals with autistic spectrum traits and their family members (N&nbsp;=&nbsp;267). We evaluated autism spectrum traits using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) to assess the presence and severity of social impairment and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to assess executive function. The linear multivariate regression analysis (using SOLAR-Eclipse) showed that in adults, increased core autism spectrum traits and executive dysfunction were associated with disruption of several sleep-wake parameters, particularly related to the daily sleep-wake rhythm, and that executive dysfunction was associated with disrupted sleep quality and level of physical activity. We highlight the interplay between daytime function and disrupted sleep-wake patterns, specifically related to the daily sleep-wake rhythm, that could guide future research into common mechanisms.</p>

DOI

10.1002/aur.2660

Alternate Title

Autism Res

PMID

34967137

Title

Neighborhood environments and sleep among children and adolescents: A systematic review.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

101465

Date Published

2021 Mar 17

ISSN Number

1532-2955

Abstract

<p>Understanding salient environmental determinants of pediatric sleep is essential for informing interventions and public health initiatives. Emerging evidence suggests that the neighborhood environment can impact pediatric sleep, but this evidence has not yet been systematically reviewed. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature on associations between neighborhood environments and sleep in young children (0-5 y), school-aged children (6-12 y) and adolescents (13-18 y). We reviewed 85 articles published between 2003 and 2020. The most commonly examined neighborhood exposure was low socioeconomic status (40 studies), which was associated with sleep outcomes in 58% of studies (primarily shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, or obstructive sleep apnea). Evidence was stronger for neighborhood safety/crime/violence (21 studies), with 86% of studies reporting associations with sleep outcomes (primarily self- or caregiver-reported sleep problems). Fewer studies examined associations of neighborhood physical environment exposures, including noise (15 studies), the built environment (seven studies), and air pollution (six studies). Limitations of the current body of evidence include 1) limited examination of neighborhood exposures other than socioeconomic status or safety, 2) use of primarily cross-sectional observational study designs, 3) lack of objective sleep outcome assessment, and 4) limits of current exposure assessment methods.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.smrv.2021.101465

Alternate Title

Sleep Med Rev

PMID

33827031

Title

Associations of the residential built environment with adolescent sleep outcomes.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 28

ISSN Number

1550-9109

Abstract

<p><strong>STUDY OBJECTIVES: </strong>Over 75% of US high school students obtain insufficient sleep, placing them at risk for adverse health outcomes. Identification of modifiable determinants of adolescent sleep is needed to inform prevention strategies, yet little is known about the influence of the built environment on adolescent sleep.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this prospective study, actigraphy was used to assess sleep outcomes among 110 adolescents for 14 days each in eighth and ninth grades: duration (hours/night), onset and offset, and sleeping ≥8 hours. Home addresses were linked to built environment exposures: sound levels, tree canopy cover, street density, intersection density, population density, and housing density. Mixed-effects regression estimated associations of built environment measures with sleep outcomes, adjusting for sex, race, parent education, household income, household size, grade, weeknight status, and neighborhood poverty.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in neighborhood sound was associated with 16 minutes later sleep onset (β = 0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.49) and 25% lower odds of sleeping for ≥8 hours (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.96). A 1-SD increase in neighborhood tree canopy was associated with 18 minutes earlier sleep onset (β = -0.31, 95% CI: -0.49, -0.13) and 10 minutes earlier sleep offset (β= -0.17, 95% CI: -0.28, -0.05). No associations were observed for density-based exposures.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Higher neighborhood sound level was associated with lower odds of sufficient sleep, while higher tree canopy cover was associated with more favorable sleep timing. Neighborhood sound levels and tree canopy cover are potential targets for policies and interventions to support healthier sleep among adolescents.</p>

DOI

10.1093/sleep/zsaa276

Alternate Title

Sleep

PMID

33507268

Title

Engineering a Mobile Platform to Promote Sleep in the Pediatric Primary Care Setting.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 07

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Pediatricians lack tools to support families at home for the promotion of childhood sleep. We are using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) framework to guide the development of a mobile health platform for childhood sleep promotion.</p>

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Under the preparation phase of the MOST framework, to demonstrate feasibility of a mobile health platform towards treating children with insufficient sleep.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children aged 10-12y were enrolled (Study #1: N=30; Study #2: N=43). Participants wore a sleep tracker to measure sleep duration. Data were retrieved by a mobile health platform, programmed to send introductory messages during run-in (2 weeks) and goal achievement messages during intervention (7 weeks) periods. In study #1, participants were randomized to control, gain-framed incentive or loss-framed incentive arms. In study #2, participants were randomized to control, loss-framed incentive, normative feedback or loss-framed incentive plus normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In study #1, 1,514 nights of data were captured (69%) and sleep duration during the intervention was higher by an average of 21 (95% CI: -8, 51) and 34 (95% CI: 7, 61) minutes per night for the gain-framed and loss-framed arms, respectively, compared to controls. In study #2, 2,689 nights of data were captured (81%), with no major differences in average sleep duration between the control and the loss-framed or normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We have developed and deployed a mobile health platform that can capture sleep data and remotely communicate with families. Promising candidate intervention components will be further investigated under the optimization phase of the MOST framework.</p>

DOI

10.1101/2020.11.06.20223719

Alternate Title

medRxiv

PMID

33173886

Title

Engineering a mobile platform to promote sleep in the pediatric primary care setting.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

zpab006

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2632-5012

Abstract

<p><strong>Study Objectives: </strong>Pediatricians lack tools to support families at home for the promotion of childhood sleep. We are using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) framework to guide the development of a mobile health platform for childhood sleep promotion. The objective of this study is to demonstrate feasibility of a mobile health platform towards treating children with insufficient sleep.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>Children aged 10-12 years were enrolled (Study #1: = 30; Study #2: = 43). Participants wore a sleep tracker to measure sleep duration. Data were retrieved by a mobile health platform, programmed to send introductory messages during run-in (2 weeks) and goal achievement messages during intervention (7 weeks) periods. In study #1, participants were randomized to control, gain-framed incentive or loss-framed incentive arms. In study #2, participants were randomized to control, loss-framed incentive, normative feedback or loss-framed incentive plus normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>In study #1, 1514 nights of data were captured (69%) and sleep duration during the intervention was higher by an average of 21 (95% CI: -8, 51) and 34 (95% CI: 7, 61) minutes per night for the gain-framed and loss-framed arms, respectively, compared to controls. In study #2, 2,689 nights of data were captured (81%), with no major differences in average sleep duration between the control and the loss-framed or normative feedback arms.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>We have developed and deployed a mobile health platform that can capture sleep data and remotely communicate with families. Promising candidate intervention components will be further investigated under the of the MOST framework.</p>

<p><strong>Clinical Trials: </strong>Both studies included in this manuscript were registered at clinicaltrials.gov:-Study #1: NCT03263338-Study #2: NCT03426644.</p>

DOI

10.1093/sleepadvances/zpab006

Alternate Title

Sleep Adv

PMID

33173886

Title

Changes in Sleep Duration and Timing During the Middle-to-High School Transition.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 20

ISSN Number

1879-1972

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>The purpose of the study was to quantify changes in sleep during the middle-to-high school transition and determine if changes in sleep differ by sociodemographic characteristics.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Adolescents were enrolled in eighth grade and followed into ninth grade (N&nbsp;= 110; 2,470 nights observed). The outcomes were actigraphy-estimated sleep duration, sleep onset, sleep offset, and sleep sufficiency (≥8&nbsp;hours of sleep). The exposures were school grade (eighth or ninth), school night status (school or nonschool), sex (female or male), and race (white, black, or other).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>On school nights, sleep duration declined by 25.8&nbsp;minutes per night (p &lt; .001) from eighth to ninth grade. There was no change in sleep duration on nonschool nights. Timing of sleep onset was 22.2&nbsp;minutes later on school nights (p &lt; .001) and 17.4&nbsp;minutes later on nonschool nights (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001) in ninth grade. Timing of sleep offset did not change on school mornings but was 22.2&nbsp;minutes later on nonschool mornings (p &lt; .001) in ninth grade. The proportion of school nights (and nonschool nights) with sleep duration ≥8&nbsp;hours was 9.4% (38.3%) in eighth grade and 5.7% (35.9%) in ninth grade. The odds of sleeping ≥8&nbsp;hours per night was 42% lower in ninth grade, compared toeighth grade (odds ratio&nbsp;= .58; 95% confidence interval: .37, .91). Males were 59% less likely to sleep ≥8&nbsp;hours per night. Black adolescents were 51% less likely to sleep ≥8&nbsp;hours per night.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Insufficient sleep is highly prevalent, especially on school nights and among male and black adolescents, and this problem worsens with the transition to high school.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.04.024

Alternate Title

J Adolesc Health

PMID

32576483

Title

Targeting Sleep Duration and Timing for Prevention of Adolescent Obesity.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Sep 16

ISSN Number

2168-6211

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.3080

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

31524928

Title

Changes in pediatric DXA measures of musculoskeletal outcomes and correlation with quantitative CT following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

128-135

Date Published

2018 Jul

ISSN Number

1873-2763

Abstract

<p>We previously reported significant gains in pQCT measures of tibia trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) and cortical structure following completion of therapy in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The objective of this study was to examine changes in DXA measures used in clinical practice and expressed as Z-scores using robust national reference data. Children and adolescents, ages 5 to 18 years were enrolled within 2 (median 0.8) years of completing ALL therapy. DXA total-body less-head bone mineral content (TBLH-BMC), and spine, total hip, femoral neck, and 1/3rd radius areal BMD (aBMD) were assessed in 45 participants at enrollment and 12-months later. Linear regression models examined correlates of changes in DXA Z-scores. Changes in DXA outcomes were compared to changes in tibia pQCT trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) and cortical area. At enrollment, DXA TBLH-BMC, spine and radius aBMD Z-scores were not significantly reduced in ALL survivors; however, total hip [median -0.74 (IQ range -1.51 to -0.04)] and femoral neck [-0.51 (-1.24 to 0.14)] aBMD Z-scores were lower (both p &lt; 0.01) compared to reference data. DXA Z-scores at all skeletal sites increased over 12 months. Despite improvement, total hip Z-score remained lower at -0.55 (-1.05 to 0.18). The increases in TBLH-BMC, total hip and femoral neck aBMD Z-scores were more pronounced in those enrolled within 6 months of completing ALL therapy, compared to those enrolled at &gt;6 months. Gains in TBLH-BMC, total hip, femoral neck and radius aBMD Z-scores were significantly associated with gains in tibia cortical area Z-scores (R = 0.56 to 0.67, p ≤ 0.001). Changes in TBLH and proximal femur sites were associated with gains in trabecular vBMD Z-scores (R = 0.37 to 0.40; p ≤ 0.01); these associations were not significant when adjusted for gains in cortical area. In summary, gains in DXA measures were most pronounced in total hip and femoral neck following ALL therapy. The gains in all DXA measures, with the exception of lumbar spine, reflected gains in cortical area. Overall, ALL survivors demonstrate skeletal recovery following completion of therapy; a small sub-group continue to demonstrate deficits and benefit from continued observation to ensure improvement over time.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.bone.2018.04.012

Alternate Title

Bone

PMID

29679731

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