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A Randomized Trial of a Multicomponent Intervention to Promote Medication Adherence: The Teen Adherence in Kidney Transplant Effectiveness of Intervention Trial (TAKE-IT).

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2018 Mar 15

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<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Poor adherence to immunosuppressive medications is a major cause of premature graft loss among children and young adults. Multicomponent interventions have shown promise but have not been fully evaluated.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Unblinded parallel-arm randomized trial to assess the efficacy of a clinic-based adherence-promoting intervention.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING &amp; PARTICIPANTS: </strong>Prevalent kidney transplant recipients 11 to 24 years of age and 3 or more months posttransplantation at 8 kidney transplantation centers in Canada and the United States (February 2012 to May 2016) were included.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTION: </strong>Adherence was electronically monitored in all participants during a 3-month run-in, followed by a 12-month intervention. Participants assigned to the TAKE-IT intervention could choose to receive text message, e-mail, and/or visual cue dose reminders and met with a coach at 3-month intervals when adherence data from the prior 3 months were reviewed with the participant. "Action-Focused Problem Solving" was used to address adherence barriers selected as important by the participant. Participants assigned to the control group met with coaches at 3-month intervals but received no feedback about adherence data.</p>

<p><strong>OUTCOMES: </strong>The primary outcomes were electronically measured "taking" adherence (the proportion of prescribed doses of immunosuppressive medications taken) and "timing" adherence (the proportion of doses of immunosuppressive medications taken between 1 hour before and 2 hours after the prescribed time of administration) on each day of observation. Secondary outcomes included the standard deviation of tacrolimus trough concentrations, self-reported adherence, acute rejection, and graft failure.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>81 patients were assigned to intervention (median age, 15.5 years; 57% male) and 88 to the control group (median age, 15.8 years; 61% male). Electronic adherence data were available for 64 intervention and 74 control participants. Participants in the intervention group had significantly greater odds of taking prescribed medications (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.15-2.39) and taking medications at or near the prescribed time (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.21-2.50) than controls.</p>

<p><strong>LIMITATIONS: </strong>Lack of electronic adherence data for some participants may have introduced bias. There was low statistical power for clinical outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The multicomponent TAKE-IT intervention resulted in significantly better medication adherence than the control condition. Better medication adherence may result in improved graft outcomes, but this will need to be demonstrated in larger studies.</p>

<p><strong>TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>Registered at with study number NCT01356277.</p>



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