First name
Daniel
Middle name
E
Last name
Dulek

Title

Case Report: Immune Dysregulation Due to Reactivation After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

719679

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2296-2360

Abstract

<p>Disseminated toxoplasmosis is an uncommon but highly lethal cause of hyperferritinemic sepsis after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report two cases of disseminated toxoplasmosis from two centers in critically ill adolescents after HCT: a 19-year-old who developed fever and altered mental status on day +19 after HCT and a 20-year-old who developed fever and diarrhea on day +52 after HCT. Both patients developed hyperferritinemia with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and profound immune dysregulation, which progressed to death despite maximal medical therapies. Because disseminated toxoplasmosis is both treatable and challenging to diagnose, it is imperative that intensivists maintain a high index of suspicion for infection when managing immunocompromised children, particularly in those with known positive serologies.</p>

DOI

10.3389/fped.2021.719679

Alternate Title

Front Pediatr

PMID

34447731

Title

Initial Guidance on Use of Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Treatment of COVID-19 in Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 03

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>In November 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) provided Emergency Use Authorizations (EUA) for two novel virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibody therapies, bamlanivimab, and REGN-COV2 (casirivimab plus imdevimab), for the treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 in adolescents and adults in specified high-risk groups. This has challenged clinicians to determine the best approach to use of these products.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of experts in pediatric infectious diseases, pediatric infectious diseases pharmacy, pediatric intensive care medicine, and pediatric hematology from 29 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a guidance statement was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The course of COVID-19 in children and adolescents is typically mild and there is no high-quality evidence supporting any high risk groups. There is no evidence for safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, limited evidence of modest benefit in adults, and evidence for potential harm associated with infusion reactions or anaphylaxis.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Based on evidence available as of December 20, 2020, the panel suggests against routine administration of monoclonal antibody therapy (bamlanivimab, or casirivimab and imdevimab), for treatment of COVID-19 in children or adolescents, including those designated by the FDA as at high risk of progression to hospitalization or severe disease. Clinicians and health systems choosing to use these agents on an individualized basis should consider risk factors supported by pediatric-specific evidence, and ensure implementation of a system for safe and timely administration that does not exacerbate existing healthcare disparities.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa175

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

33388760

Title

Multicenter interim guidance on use of antivirals for children with COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 12

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Although Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a mild infection in most children, a small proportion develop severe or critical illness. Data evaluating agents with potential antiviral activity continue to expand, such that updated guidance is needed regarding use of these agents in children.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 20 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of the best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Given the typically mild course of COVID-19 in children, supportive care alone is suggested for most cases. For children with severe illness, defined as a supplemental oxygen requirement without need for non-invasive or invasive mechanical ventilation or extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), remdesivir is suggested, preferably as part of a clinical trial if available. Remdesivir should also be considered for critically ill children requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO. A duration of 5 days is appropriate for most patients. The panel recommends against the use of hydroxychloroquine or lopinavir-ritonavir (or other protease inhibitors) for COVID-19 in children.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For children with severe or critical disease, this guidance offers an approach for decision-making regarding use of remdesivir.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa115

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32918548

Title

Multicenter initial guidance on use of antivirals for children with COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Apr 22

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Although Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild in nearly all children, a small proportion of pediatric patients develops severe or critical illness. Guidance is therefore needed regarding use of agents with potential activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in pediatrics.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A panel of pediatric infectious diseases physicians and pharmacists from 18 geographically diverse North American institutions was convened. Through a series of teleconferences and web-based surveys, a set of guidance statements was developed and refined based on review of best available evidence and expert opinion.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Given the typically mild course of pediatric COVID-19, supportive care alone is suggested for the overwhelming majority of cases. The panel suggests a decision-making framework for antiviral therapy that weighs risks and benefits based on disease severity as indicated by respiratory support needs, with consideration on a case-by-case basis of potential pediatric risk factors for disease progression. If an antiviral is used, the panel suggests remdesivir as the preferred agent. Hydroxychloroquine could be considered for patients who are not candidates for remdesivir or when remdesivir is not available. Antivirals should preferably be used as part of a clinical trial if available.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Antiviral therapy for COVID-19 is not necessary for the great majority of pediatric patients. For those rare children who develop severe or critical disease, this guidance offer an approach for decision-making regarding antivirals, informed by available data. As evidence continues to evolve rapidly, the need for updates to the guidance is anticipated.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa045

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32318706

Title

A multicenter study to define the epidemiology and outcomes of Clostridioides difficile infection in pediatric hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplant recipients.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Feb 16

ISSN Number

1600-6143

Abstract

<p>Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) recipients are at increased risk for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). We conducted a multicenter retrospective study to describe the incidence of CDI in children transplanted between January 2010 and June 2013. Nested case-control substudies, matched 1:1 by transplant type, institution, patient age, and time of year (quartile) of transplant, identified CDI risk factors. Cohorts included 1496 HCT and 1090 SOT recipients. Among HCT recipients, 355 CDI episodes were diagnosed in 265 recipients (18.2%). Nested case-control study identified prior history of CDI (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5 - 4.7), proton-pump inhibitors (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3 - 3.4), and exposure to third (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4 - 4.2) or fourth generation (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 - 3.7) cephalosporins as risk factors. Notably, fluoroquinolone exposure appeared protective (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3 - 0.9). Ninety-two episodes of CDI were diagnosed among 79 SOT recipients (7.3%) and exposure to PPIs (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 - 5.4) and third generation cephalosporin therapy (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.4 - 10.5) were identified as risk factors. Strategies to decrease PPI use and changes in the class of prophylactic antibiotics may impact CDI incidence and warrant further study.</p>

DOI

10.1111/ajt.15826

Alternate Title

Am. J. Transplant.

PMID

32064754

Title

A Multicenter Consortium to Define the Epidemiology and Outcomes of Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients With Inpatient Respiratory Virus Infection.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Mar 10

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Respiratory virus infection (RVI) in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients poses a significant risk; however, the epidemiology and effects of an RVI after pediatric SOT in the era of current molecular diagnostic assays are unclear.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>A retrospective observational cohort of pediatric SOT recipients (January 2010 to June 2013) was assembled from 9 US pediatric transplant centers. Charts were reviewed for RVI events associated with hospitalization within 1 year after the transplant. An RVI diagnosis required respiratory symptoms and detection of a virus (ie, human rhinovirus/enterovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, coronavirus, and/or respiratory syncytial virus). The incidence of RVI was calculated, and the association of baseline SOT factors with subsequent pulmonary complications and death was assessed.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 1096 pediatric SOT recipients (448 liver, 289 kidney, 251 heart, 66 lung, 42 intestine/multivisceral), 159 (14.5%) developed RVI associated with hospitalization within 12 months after their transplant. RVI occurred at the highest rates in intestine/abdominal multivisceral (38%), thoracic (heart/lung) (18.6%), and liver (15.6%) transplant recipients and a lower rate in kidney (5.5%) transplant recipients. RVI was associated with younger median age at transplant (1.72 vs 7.89 years; P &lt; .001) and among liver or kidney transplant recipients with the receipt of a deceased-donor graft compared to a living donor (P = .01). The all-cause and attributable case-fatality rates within 3 months of RVI onset were 4% and 0%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that age was independently associated with increased risk for a pulmonary complication (odds ratio, 1.24 [95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.51]) and that receipt of an intestine/multivisceral transplant was associated with increased risk of all-cause death (odds ratio, 24.54 [95% confidence interval, 1.69-327.96]).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>In this study, hospital-associated RVI was common in the first year after pediatric SOT and associated with younger age at transplant. All-cause death after RVI was rare, and no definitive attributable death occurred.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piy024

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

29538674

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