First name
William
Middle name
O
Last name
Quarshie

Title

Intrapartum Group B Streptococcal Prophylaxis and Childhood Allergic Disorders.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Apr 08

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine if maternal intrapartum group B (GBS) antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with increased risk of childhood asthma, eczema, food allergy, or allergic rhinitis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of 14 046 children. GBS prophylaxis was defined as administration of intravenous penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, clindamycin, or vancomycin to the mother, ≥4 hours before delivery. Composite primary outcome was asthma, eczema, or food allergy diagnosis within 5 years of age, identified by diagnosis codes and appropriate medication prescription. Allergic rhinitis was defined by using diagnostic codes only and analyzed as a separate outcome. Analysis was a priori stratified by delivery mode and conducted by using Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for multiple confounders and covariates. Secondary analyses, restricted to children retained in cohort at 5 years' age, were conducted by using multivariate logistic regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>GBS prophylaxis was not associated with increased incidence of composite outcome among infants delivered vaginally (hazard ratio: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1.33) or by cesarean delivery (hazard ratio: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.32). At 5 years of age, among 10 404 children retained in the study, GBS prophylaxis was not associated with the composite outcome in vaginal (odds ratio: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) or cesarean delivery (odds ratio: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.88-1.56) cohorts. Outcomes of asthma, eczema, food allergy, separately, and allergic rhinitis were also not associated with GBS prophylaxis.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Intrapartum GBS prophylaxis was not associated with subsequent diagnosis of asthma, eczema, food allergy, or allergic rhinitis in the first 5 years of age.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-012187

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

33833072

Title

Resource Use and Outcomes of Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease Admissions: 2003 to 2016.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e018286

Date Published

2021 Feb 06

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to consume a disproportionate share of resources, yet there are limited data concerning trends in resource use and mortality among admitted children with CHD. We hypothesize that charges in CHD-related admissions increased but that mortality improved over time. <strong>Methods and Results</strong> This study, including patients &lt;18&nbsp;years old with CHD, examined inpatient admissions from the nationally representative Kids' Inpatient Database from 2003 to 2016 in order to assess the frequency, medical complexity, and outcomes of CHD hospital admissions. A total of 859&nbsp;843 admissions of children with CHD were identified. CHD admissions increased by 31.8% from 2003 to 2016, whereas overall pediatric admissions decreased by 13.4%. Compared with non-CHD admissions, those with CHD were more likely to be &lt;1&nbsp;year of age (80.5% versus 63.3%), and to have ≥1 complex chronic condition (39.7% versus 9.3%). For CHD admissions, mortality was higher (2.97% versus 0.31%) and adjusted median charges greater ($48&nbsp;426 [interquartile range (IQR), $11.932-$161&nbsp;048] versus $4697 [IQR, $2551-$12&nbsp;301]) (&lt;0.0001 for all). Among CHD admissions, whereas adjusted median charges increased from $35&nbsp;577 (IQR, $9303-$110&nbsp;439) to $61&nbsp;696 (IQR, $15&nbsp;212-$219&nbsp;237), mortality decreased from 3.2% to 2.7% ( &lt;0.0001). CHD admissions accounted for an increased proportion of all inpatient deaths, from 18.0% in 2003 to 24.5% in 2016. <strong>Conclusions</strong> Children admitted with CHD are 10 times more likely to die than those without CHD and have higher charges. Although the rate of mortality in CHD admissions decreased, children with CHD accounted for an increasing proportion of all pediatric inpatient deaths. Effective resource allocation is critical to optimize outcomes in these high-risk patients.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.018286

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

33554612

Title

Tailored medication adherence incentives for high-risk children with asthma: a pilot study.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-7

Date Published

2019 Aug 07

ISSN Number

1532-4303

Abstract

<p>While reminder-based electronic monitoring systems have shown promise in enhancing inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence in select populations, more engaging strategies may be needed in families of children with high-risk asthma. This study assesses the acceptability and feasibility of gain-framed ICS adherence incentives in families of urban, minority children with frequent asthma hospitalization. We enrolled children aged 5-11 years with multiple yearly asthma hospitalizations in a 2-month, mixed methods, ICS adherence incentive pilot study. All participants received inhaler sensors and a smartphone app to track ICS use. During month 1, families received daily adherence reminders and weekly feedback, and children earned up to $1/day for complete adherence. No reminders, feedback, or incentives were provided in month 2. We assessed feasibility and acceptability using caregiver surveys and semi-structured interviews and ICS adherence using electronic monitoring data. Of the 29 families approached, 20 enrolled (69%). Participants were primarily Black (95%), publicly insured (75%), and averaged 2.9 asthma hospitalizations in the prior year. Fifteen of the 16 caregivers (94%) surveyed at month 2 liked the idea of receiving adherence incentives. Mean adherence was significantly higher in month 1 compared with month 2 (80% vs. 33%, mean difference = 47%; 95% CI [33, 61],  &lt; 0.001). Caregivers reported that their competing priorities often limited adherence, while incentives helped motivate child adherence. ICS adherence incentives were acceptable and feasible in a high-risk cohort of children with asthma. Future studies should assess the efficacy of adherence incentives in enhancing ICS adherence in high-risk children.</p>

DOI

10.1080/02770903.2019.1648503

Alternate Title

J Asthma

PMID

31389724

Title

A Mixed Methods Evaluation of Early Childhood Abuse Prevention Within Evidence-Based Home Visiting Programs.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 May 31

ISSN Number

1573-6628

Abstract

<p>Objectives In this large scale, mixed methods evaluation, we determined the impact and context of early childhood home visiting on rates of child abuse-related injury. Methods Entropy-balanced and propensity score matched retrospective cohort analysis comparing children of Pennsylvania Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP), Parents As Teachers (PAT), and Early Head Start (EHS) enrollees and children of Pennsylvania Medicaid eligible women from 2008 to 2014. Abuse-related injury episodes were identified in medical assistance claims with ICD-9 codes. Weighted frequencies and logistic regression odds of injury within 24 months are presented. In-depth interviews with staff and clients (n = 150) from 11 programs were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Results The odds of a healthcare encounter for early childhood abuse among clients were significantly greater than comparison children (NFP: 1.32, 95% CI [1.08, 1.62]; PAT: 4.11, 95% CI [1.60, 10.55]; EHS: 3.15, 95% CI [1.41, 7.06]). Qualitative data illustrated the circumstances of and program response to client issues related to child maltreatment, highlighting the role of non-client caregivers. All stakeholders described curricular content aimed at prevention (e.g. positive parenting) with little time dedicated to addressing current or past abuse. Clients who reported a lack of abuse-related content supposed their home visitor's assumption of an absence of risk in their home, but were supportive of the introduction of abuse-related content. Approach, acceptance, and available resources were mediators of successfully addressing abuse. Conclusions for Practice Home visiting aims to prevent child abuse among high-risk families. Adequate home visitor capacity to proactively assess abuse risk, deliver effective preventive curriculum with fidelity to caregivers, and access appropriate resources is necessary.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10995-018-2530-1

Alternate Title

Matern Child Health J

PMID

29855837

Title

Controller adherence following hospital discharge in high risk children: A pilot randomized trial of text message reminders.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-9

Date Published

2018 Feb 13

ISSN Number

1532-4303

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To assess the feasibility of a mobile health, inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) adherence reminder intervention and to characterize adherence trajectories immediately following severe asthma exacerbation in high-risk urban children with persistent asthma.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children aged 2-13 with persistent asthma were enrolled in this pilot randomized controlled trial during an asthma emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization. Intervention arm participants received daily text message reminders for 30 days, and both arms received electronic sensors to measure ICS use. Primary outcomes were feasibility of sensor use and text message acceptability. Secondary outcomes included adherence to prescribed ICS regimen and 30-day adherence trajectories. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to examine adherence trajectories.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Forty-one participants (mean age 5.9) were randomized to intervention (n = 21) or control (n = 20). Overall, 85% were Black, 88% had public insurance, and 51% of the caregivers had a high school education or less. Thirty-two participant families (78%) transmitted medication adherence data; of caregivers who completed the acceptability survey, 25 (96%) chose to receive daily reminders beyond that study interval. Secondary outcome analyses demonstrated similar average daily adherence between groups (intervention = 36%; control = 32%, P = 0.73). Three adherence trajectories were identified with none ever exceeding 80% adherence.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Within a high-risk pediatric cohort, electronic monitoring of ICS use and adherence reminders delivered via text message were feasible for most participants, but there was no signal of effect. Adherence trajectories following severe exacerbation were suboptimal, demonstrating an important opportunity for asthma care improvement.</p>

DOI

10.1080/02770903.2018.1424195

Alternate Title

J Asthma

PMID

29437489

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