First name
Sarah
Middle name
M
Last name
Wood

Title

Adolescent Access to Federally Funded Clinics Providing Confidential Family Planning Following Changes to Title X Funding Regulations.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e2217488

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

Importance: In May 2019, new federal regulations regarding Title X funding were introduced. There has been no formal evaluation of the impact of this regulatory shift as it pertains to minors' access to services.

Objective: To explore the geography of federally funded clinics providing confidential reproductive care to adolescents following changes to Title X funding regulations.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cross-sectional study used a population-based sample of US Census tracts. All clinics participating in the Title X program in August 2018 and August 2020 were included in the analysis. Data were analyzed from January to December 2021.

Exposures: Period, defined as before and after the 2019 Title X rule change (August 2018 and August 2020, respectively).

Main Outcomes and Measures: US Census tracts were evaluated for the availability of confidential family planning care within a 30-minute drive, according to the presence of a Title X clinic or a permissive state law. Census tracts in which minors lost access to confidential care after the rule change were characterized in terms of demographic characteristics. Univariate logistic regression evaluated associations between Census tract characteristics and the odds of losing vs maintaining access to legally protected confidential minor services.

Results: The study included 72 620 Census tracts, accounting for approximately 324 697 728 US residents (99.96% of the population). After the Title X rule change, 1743 clinics in the Title X program left (39.0%) and minors living in 6299 Census tracts (8.7%) lost access to confidential family planning care, corresponding to an estimated 933 649 youth aged 15 to 17 years. Minors living in rural Census tracts (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.18-1.36) and those in the Midwest (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 2.24-2.60) had higher odds of losing access to care. Minors living in Census tracts with a higher Social Vulnerability Index (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.47-0.55), a larger proportion of Black individuals (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.31-0.37), and/or a larger proportion of Hispanic individuals (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.42-0.49) were less likely to lose access to care.

Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that there were losses in access to legally protected confidential reproductive health services for youth after the 2019 Title X rule change. Although evidence-based Title X guidelines have since been reinstated, state laws that ensure adolescent confidentiality in obtaining family planning services may protect youth from future alterations to the Title X program.

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.17488

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

35713904

Title

Strengthening HIV Prevention Services Through an Implementation Science Approach: Perspectives From the HIV Testers in Philadelphia.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

S90-S97

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1944-7884

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Strengthening HIV prevention services is a key priority of the Ending the HIV Epidemic plan. Informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, we examined HIV testers' perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing HIV prevention services, including testers' strengths and weaknesses; enabling factors within the inner and outer settings; and willingness to adopt potential implementation strategies.

METHODS: In 2019, the Penn Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) partnered with the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) to examine system-level challenges and opportunities experienced by PDPH-funded HIV testers (individuals conducting HIV testing) in Philadelphia. We recruited HIV testers to complete 2 web surveys (n ≈ 40 each) and in-depth interviews (n = 11).

RESULTS: Testers self-reported high HIV testing self-efficacy and competence, despite identifying gaps in their knowledge of STI testing, reporting moderate willingness to recommend pre-exposure prophylaxis, and having insufficient cultural competency when working with priority populations. Testers indicated that educational materials and policies within their agencies might require realignment to affirm sexual and gender minority clients. In qualitative interviews, testers noted challenges to implementing PDPH priorities because limited funding fueled competition between local agencies, deterred interagency partnerships, and limited their ability to serve key populations locally.

DISCUSSION: HIV testers are critical partners in addressing agency-level barriers to HIV prevention service provision through multilevel implementation strategies. In partnership with PDPH, we will create and implement a train-the-trainers program consisting of skill-building activities, technical assistance, and capacity-building for all agency personnel to address missed opportunities in HIV prevention. These activities will reinforce scalability and sustainability of PDPH-supported HIV prevention programs.

DOI

10.1097/QAI.0000000000002969

Alternate Title

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr

PMID

35703760

Title

"I Think That I Have a Good Understanding of How to Protect Myself": A Qualitative Study About HIV Risk Perceptions Among Men and Gender Diverse Individuals Who Have Sex With Men.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

82-S5

Date Published

2022 Feb

ISSN Number

1943-2755

Abstract

This qualitative study aimed to determine how men and gender diverse individuals who have sex with men describe their perceived risk of HIV and what factors influence this risk assessment. We conducted in-depth, virtual interviews with 18 HIV-negative individuals from Philadelphia, eligible for or taking PrEP. The interviews assessed the participants' understanding of their HIV risk, using thematic analysis to deductively code and extract themes. Three themes emerged: (1) participants expressed both deliberative and affective risk perception before and after sexual encounters; (2) participants linked HIV knowledge to risk perception and stigma; (3) participants connected intrinsic and extrinsic factors to risk perception differently. Participants endorsed low overall risk perception, while also describing moments of high affective risk perception after sexual encounters in which they were not able to implement their preferred prevention strategies. Future research should explore helping individuals transform affective risk perception into empowerment around sexual health.

DOI

10.1521/aeap.2022.34.1.82

Alternate Title

AIDS Educ Prev

PMID

35192391

Title

A retrospective study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis counselling among non-Hispanic Black youth diagnosed with bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the United States, 2014-2019.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e25867

Date Published

2022 Feb

ISSN Number

1758-2652

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Youth account for a disproportionate number of new HIV infections; however, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is limited. We evaluated PrEP counselling rates among non-Hispanic Black youth in the United States after a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Black youth receiving care at two academically affiliated clinics in Philadelphia between June 2014 and June 2019. We compared PrEP counselling for youth who received primary care services versus those who did not receive primary care services, all of whom met PrEP eligibility criteria due to STI diagnosis per U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical practice guidelines. Two logistic regression models for receipt of PrEP counselling were fit: Model 1 focused on sexual and gender minority (SGM) status and Model 2 on rectal STIs with both models adjusted for patient- and healthcare-level factors.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Four hundred and sixteen patients met PrEP eligibility criteria due to STI based on sex assigned at birth and sexual partners. Thirty patients (7%) had documentation of PrEP counselling. Receipt of primary care services was not significantly associated with receipt of PrEP counselling in either Model 1 (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.10 [95% CI 0.01, 0.99]) or Model 2 (aOR 0.52 [95% CI 0.10, 2.77]). Receipt of PrEP counselling was significantly associated with later calendar years of STI diagnosis (aOR 6.80 [95% CI 1.64, 29.3]), assigned male sex at birth (aOR 26.2 [95% CI 3.46, 198]) and SGM identity (aOR 317 [95% CI 39.9, 2521]) in Model 1 and later calendar years of diagnosis (aOR 3.46 [95% CI 1.25, 9.58]), assigned male sex at birth (aOR 18.6 [95% CI 3.88, 89.3]) and rectal STI diagnosis (aOR 28.0 [95% CI 8.07, 97.5]) in Model 2. Fourteen patients (3%) started PrEP during the observation period; 12/14 (86%) were SGM primary care patients assigned male sex at birth.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>PrEP counselling and uptake among U.S. non-Hispanic Black youth remain disproportionately low despite recent STI diagnosis. These findings support the need for robust investment in PrEP-inclusive sexual health services that are widely implemented and culturally tailored to Black youth, particularly cisgender heterosexual females.</p>

DOI

10.1002/jia2.25867

Alternate Title

J Int AIDS Soc

PMID

35192740

Title

Incidence of syphilis infection and syphilis-related care utilization among adolescents and young adults living with HIV.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

9564624211048774

Date Published

2021 Nov 02

ISSN Number

1758-1052

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Incidence of syphilis has been rising in recent years and disproportionately affects young adults, racial/ethnic minority men, and people living with HIV. This study describes patterns of syphilis infection and syphilis-related care utilization among adolescents and young adults living with HIV (AYALH) in Philadelphia.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study of AYALH receiving care at an adolescent-specialty clinic who received a syphilis test and/or benzathine penicillin for syphilis treatment from 2011 to 2018 ( = 335). Syphilis incidence rates were calculated by baseline demographic characteristics and by calendar year. Recurrent survival analysis was used to explore how demographic and neighborhood-level factors were associated with incident syphilis and syphilis-related care utilization.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Syphilis-related care was provided 145 times and there were 109 episodes of confirmed syphilis among 83 unique participants between 2011 and 2018. The overall syphilis incidence rate was 13.50 (95% CI: 10.9-16.5) cases per hundred person-years. Participants assigned male sex at birth had higher hazards of infection (HR: 6.12, 95% CI: 1.53-24.48), while older participants (HR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.58-0.72) and those living further from the clinic had lower hazards of infection (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00). Race, insurance status, neighborhood diversity index, and neighborhood social disadvantage index were not associated with hazard of infection or syphilis-related care utilization.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Our study found high incidence of syphilis infection among a cohort of AYALH. Integrating comprehensive sexually transmitted infection prevention services into HIV care and improving syphilis prevention services in communities with high syphilis rates should be a priority in future intervention work.</p>

DOI

10.1177/09564624211048774

Alternate Title

Int J STD AIDS

PMID

34727755

Title

Acceptability, Feasibility, and Quality of Telehealth for Adolescent Health Care Delivery During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-sectional Study of Patient and Family Experiences.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e32708

Date Published

2021 Nov 15

ISSN Number

2561-6722

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Data regarding the acceptability, feasibility, and quality of telehealth among adolescents and young adults (AYA) and their parents and caregivers (caregivers) are lacking.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of this study was to assess the noninferiority of telehealth versus in-person visits by comparing acceptability with respect to efficiency, effectiveness, equity, patient-centeredness, and confidentiality.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cross-sectional web-based surveys were sent to caregivers and AYA following video visits within an Adolescent Medicine subspecialty clinic in May-July 2020. Proportions of AYA and caregivers who rated telehealth as noninferior were compared using chi-squared tests. Feasibility was assessed via items measuring technical difficulties. Deductive thematic analysis using the Institute of Medicine dimensions of health care quality was used to code open-ended question responses.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Survey response rates were 20.5% (55/268) for AYA and 21.8% (123/563) for caregivers. The majority of the respondents were White cisgender females. Most AYA and caregivers rated telehealth as noninferior to in-person visits with respect to confidentiality, communication, medication management, and mental health care. A higher proportion of AYA compared to caregivers found telehealth inferior with respect to confidentiality (11/51, 22% vs 3/118, 2.5%, P&lt;.001). One-quarter (14/55) of the AYA patients and 31.7% (39/123) of the caregivers reported technical difficulties. The dominant themes in the qualitative data included advantages of telehealth for efficiency and equity of health care delivery. However, respondents' concerns included reduced safety and effectiveness of care, particularly for patients with eating disorders, owing to lack of hands-on examinations, collection of vital signs, and laboratory testing.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Telehealth was highly acceptable among AYA and caregivers. Future optimization should include improving privacy, ameliorating technical difficulties, and standardizing at-home methods of obtaining patient data to assure patient safety.</p>

DOI

10.2196/32708

Alternate Title

JMIR Pediatr Parent

PMID

34779782

Title

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on STI/HIV testing among adolescents in a large pediatric primary care network.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 19

ISSN Number

1537-4521

Abstract

<p><b>ABSTRACT: </b>Disruptions in STI testing infrastructure during the COVID-19 pandemic threaten to impact STI service delivery for adolescents. Within a large pediatric primary care network, we compared STI testing encounters between the pandemic period and an analogous pre-pandemic period. STI test counts decreased and test positivity increased during the pandemic period.</p>

DOI

10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001427

Alternate Title

Sex Transm Dis

PMID

33783411

Title

Mental Health, Social Influences, and HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Utilization Among Men and Transgender Individuals Screening for HIV Prevention Trials.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 28

ISSN Number

1573-3254

Abstract

<p>The effects of mental health comorbidities and social support on the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care continuum are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and transgender individuals, ≥ 18&nbsp;years-old, with ≥ 2 male or transgender partners, or recent condomless anal intercourse. Surveys assessed demographics, mental health treatment, depressive symptomatology, social support, and PrEP-related social contacts. Logistic regression assessed associations between these factors and PrEP uptake and persistence. Participants (n = 247) were 89% cis-male and 46% African-American. Median age was 27 (IQR:23-33). Thirty-seven percent had ever used PrEP, of whom 18% discontinued use. High depressive symptomology was identified in 11% and 9% were receiving mental health treatment. There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms or mental health treatment on the odds of PrEP uptake or discontinuation. Each additional PrEP contact conferred a greater odds of uptake (aOR:1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42). Network-level targets may produce fruitful interventions to increase PrEP uptake.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10461-020-03004-y

Alternate Title

AIDS Behav

PMID

32860114

Title

Outcomes of a Rapid Adolescent Telehealth Scale-Up During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 28

ISSN Number

1879-1972

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>To describe the first 30 days of rapid adolescent telehealth scale-up in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic at a single academic medical center and assess for disparities in visit completion rates by patient characteristics.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Visit outcome and patient demographic data were obtained via electronic health record (EHR) reports. Telehealth visit completion rates were compared by patient characteristics using the chi-square test and t-test. We used zip code data to generate latitude- and longitude-based maps of the range and density of service delivery. Patient cases highlighting challenges and opportunities for adolescent telehealth were summarized.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Between March 16 and April 15, 2020, 392 telehealth visits were scheduled in 331 unique patients, with an 82% appointment completion rate. Video visits were conducted for eating disorders (39%), contraception/menstrual disorders (22%), gender-affirming care (17%), general adolescent medicine (15%), HIV treatment (6%), and substance abuse (1%). The majority of telehealth patients were female Caucasian minors with private insurance. There were no significant differences in telehealth visit completion rates by age, sex, gender, or insurance. Patients coded as non-white (African-American, Asian, or other) in the EHR had lower visit completion rates than white patients (p&nbsp;= .003). Telehealth patients were distributed across five states, with the highest concentration in the zip codes nearest to the clinic.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Rapid scale-up of telehealth for Adolescent Medicine was achieved at this large academic medical center. Future implementation research is needed to assure telehealth reaches adolescents without widening health disparities.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.05.025

Alternate Title

J Adolesc Health

PMID

32611509

Title

Family Characteristics in Sex Communication and Social Support: Implications for Emerging Adult Men Who Have Sex with Men's PrEP Engagement.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Mar 28

ISSN Number

1573-2800

Abstract

<p>While emerging adulthood (ages 18-25) is marked by increased independence from parents, parental support remains a strong correlate of positive sexual health outcomes for heterosexual youth. With the emergence of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), few studies have examined the potential for parent-child sex communication and PrEP adoption among emerging adult men who have sex with men (MSM). We aimed to describe the extent to which parents/family characteristics play supportive roles in emerging adult MSM's current PrEP use. PrEP-indicated participants (N = 222) were recruited via social media to complete an online survey. Multivariable logistic regression assessed associations between emerging adult MSM's current PrEP use and comfort with parent-child sex communication, family social support, family outness, and family prioritization, adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Thirty percent of participants reported current PrEP use. Only 20% reported moderate/high comfort with parent sex communication, 80% reported any family sexual identity disclosure, 70% reported moderate/high family social support, and 70% ranked family as a high/very high priority. Our multivariable model demonstrated an association between comfort with parent-child sex communication with current PrEP use only (AOR= 1.55, 95% CI 1.04-2.32). Our findings support that parents of emerging adult MSM possess a critical potential to reduce their sons' risk of HIV and promote PrEP uptake. Interventions that facilitate parents' efficacy to foster affirming, non-judgmental environments and discussions about their child's sexual behaviors, attractions/relationships, and health (e.g., PrEP) may be impactful in reducing the high HIV incidence rate that burdens emerging adult MSM.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10508-020-01648-4

Alternate Title

Arch Sex Behav

PMID

32222853

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