First name
C
Middle name
P
Last name
Hawkes

Title

Fat-bone interaction within the bone marrow milieu: Impact on hematopoiesis and systemic energy metabolism.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Mar 14

ISSN Number

1873-2763

Abstract

<p>The relationship between fat, bone and systemic metabolism is a growing area of scientific interest. Marrow adipose tissue is a well-recognized component of the bone marrow milieu and is metabolically distinct from current established subtypes of adipose tissue. Despite recent advances, the functional significance of marrow adipose tissue is still not clearly delineated. Bone and fat cells share a common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) within the bone marrow, and hormones and transcription factors such as growth hormone, leptin, and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ influence MSC differentiation into osteoblasts or adipocytes. MSC osteogenic potential is more vulnerable than adipogenic potential to radiation and chemotherapy, and this confers a risk for an abnormal fat-bone axis in survivors following cancer therapy and bone marrow transplantation. This review provides a summary of data from animal and human studies describing the relationship between marrow adipose tissue and hematopoiesis, bone mineral density, bone strength, and metabolic function. The significance of marrow adiposity in other metabolic disorders such as osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, and estrogen and growth hormone deficiency are also discussed. We conclude that marrow adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ with important metabolic functions contributing to bone energy maintenance, osteogenesis, bone remodeling, and hematopoiesis. Future studies on the metabolic role of marrow adipose tissue may provide the critical insight necessary for selecting targeted therapeutic interventions to improve altered hematopoiesis and augment skeletal remodeling in cancer survivors.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.bone.2018.03.012

Alternate Title

Bone

PMID

29550266

Title

Characteristics of Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Pediatric Cohort.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1639-1648

Date Published

2018 Apr 1

ISSN Number

1945-7197

Abstract

<p><strong>Context: </strong>In adults, non-invasive follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) is considered low risk for metastasis and persistent/recurrent disease.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>The goal of this study was to assess the clinical, sonographic, and histopathological features of FVPTC in a pediatric cohort.</p>

<p><strong>Design: </strong>A retrospective review of subjects &lt; 19 years of age with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) who underwent thyroidectomy between January 2010 and July 2015.</p>

<p><strong>Setting: </strong>Multidisciplinary, academic referral center.</p>

<p><strong>Patients: </strong>Patients with FVPTC, defined as a tumor ≥1.0 cm in largest dimension with predominant follicular growth, complete lack of well-formed papillae, and nuclear features of PTC.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcome Measure: </strong>Tumor size and location, presence of a tumor capsule, capsule and vascular invasion, lymph node and distant metastasis.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Eighteen patients with FVPTC were identified from a case cohort of 110 patients with PTC. On histopathology, 13 (72%) had unifocal nodules and 14 (78%) were completely encapsulated. Capsule invasion was frequent (9/14; 64%) and vascular invasion was found in one third of patients (6/18; 33%). No lymph node metastases were found in the 13 (72%) patients who had a central neck lymph node dissection. One patient with vascular invasion had distant metastases.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>When strictly defined, FVPTC in pediatric patients has a low risk for bilateral disease and metastasis. Prospective studies are needed to confirm whether lobectomy with surveillance is sufficient to achieve remission in pediatric patients with low risk FVPTC.</p>

DOI

10.1210/jc.2017-02454

PMID

29438531

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