First name
Alexander
Middle name
G
Last name
Fiks

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress Among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1414-1421

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.

METHODS: We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2 to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.

RESULTS: Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.

CONCLUSION: Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Performance Feedback for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Randomized Trial From the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings Research Network.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

47-56

Date Published

12/2023

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a feedback-based intervention would reduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine missed opportunities.

METHODS: In a longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial of 48 pediatric primary care practices, we allocated half the practices to receive a sequential, multicomponent intervention phased over consecutive periods. In a prior trial (period 1), communication skills training reduced missed opportunities for the initial HPV vaccine dose at well visits but not at acute/chronic visits. The current trial (period 2) evaluated the added value of performance feedback to clinicians after communication training. Performance feedback consisted of an introductory training module, weekly electronic "Quick Tips," and 3 individualized performance feedback reports to clinicians. We fit logistic regression models for the primary outcome of HPV vaccination missed opportunities using generalized estimating equations with independence working correlation, accounting for clustering at the practice level.

RESULTS: Performance feedback resulted in a 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.8, 0.0) percentage point greater reduction in missed HPV vaccine opportunities for the intervention versus control group during acute/chronic visits for subsequent HPV vaccinations (dose 2 or 3). However, during well visits for HPV vaccination dose #1, intervention practices increased missed opportunities (worsened) by 4.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 7.4) percentage points more than control practices, reducing the prior period 1 improvements and blunting the overall effect of performance feedback. We did not observe differences for the other visit/dose categories.

CONCLUSIONS: Performance feedback improved HPV vaccination for one subset of visits (acute/chronic, subsequent HPV vaccinations due), but not for well visits.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.006

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35853600

Title

Access to What for Whom? How Care Delivery Innovations Impact Health Equity.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

1-6

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1525-1497

Abstract

Achieving health equity (where every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential) requires the removal of obstacles to health, including barriers to high-quality medical care. Innovations in service delivery can inadvertently maintain, worsen, or introduce inequities. As such, implementation of innovations must be accompanied by a dual commitment to evaluate impact on marginalized groups and to restructure systems that obstruct people from health and healthcare. Understanding the impact innovations have on access to high-quality care is central to this effort. In this Perspective, we join conceptual models of healthcare access and quality with health equity frameworks to conceptualize healthcare receipt as a series of interactions between people and systems unfolding over time. This synthesized model is applied to illustrate the effects of telemedicine on patient, population, and system outcomes. Telemedicine may improve or worsen health equity by altering access to care and by altering quality of care once it is accessed. Teasing out these varied effects is complex and requires considering multilevel influences on the outcome of a care-seeking episode. This synthesized model can be used to inform research, practice, and policy surrounding the equity implications of care delivery innovations more broadly.

DOI

10.1007/s11606-022-07987-3

Alternate Title

J Gen Intern Med

PMID

36627525

Title

Neighborhood Greenspace and Changes in Pediatric Obesity During COVID-19.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

33-41

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1873-2607

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric obesity rates increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the associations of neighborhood greenspace with changes in pediatric obesity during the pandemic.

METHODS: Electronic health record data from a large pediatric primary care network were extracted to create a retrospective cohort of patients aged 2-17 years with a visit in each of 2 periods: June 2019-December 2019 (before pandemic) and June 2020-December 2020 (pandemic). Multivariable longitudinal generalized estimating equations Poisson regression estimated the associations of census tract‒level Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with (1) changes in obesity risk during the pandemic and (2) risk of new-onset obesity among children who were not obese prepandemic. Analyses were conducted between November 2021 and May 2022.

RESULTS: Among 81,418 children (mean age: 8.4 years, 18% Black), the percentage of children who were obese increased by 3.2% during the pandemic. Children in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Quartiles 2-4 had smaller increases in obesity risk during the pandemic than those in Quartile 1 (risk ratio=0.96, 95% CI=0.93, 0.99; Quartile 3 risk ratio=0.95; 95% CI=0.91, 0.98; Quartile 4 risk ratio=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99). Among the subset who were not obese before the pandemic, children in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index quartiles 3-4 had a lower risk of new-onset obesity during the pandemic (Quartile 3 risk ratio=0.82, 95% CI=0.71, 0.95; Quartile 4 risk ratio=0.73, 95% CI=0.62, 0.85). Higher Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was associated with smaller increases in obesity risk and lower risk of new-onset obesity among children in urban and suburban areas, but results were in the opposite direction for children in rural areas.

CONCLUSIONS: Children living in greener neighborhoods experienced smaller increases in obesity during the pandemic than children in less green neighborhoods, although findings differed by urbanicity.

DOI

10.1016/j.amepre.2022.07.014

Alternate Title

Am J Prev Med

PMID

36116998

Title

Trends in Positive Depression and Suicide Risk Screens in Pediatric Primary Care during COVID-19.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent mental health concerns increased during COVID-19, but it is unknown whether early increases in depression and suicide risk have been sustained. We examined changes in positive screens for depression and suicide risk in a large pediatric primary care network through May 2022.

METHODS: Using an observational repeated cross-sectional design, we examined changes in depression and suicide risk during the pandemic using electronic health record data from adolescents. Segmented logistic regression was used to estimate risk differences (RD) for positive depression and suicide risk screens during the early pandemic (June 2020-May 2021) and late pandemic (June 2021-May 2022) relative to before the pandemic (March 2018-February 2020). Models adjusted for seasonality and standard errors accounted for clustering by practice.

RESULTS: Among 222,668 visits for 115,627 adolescents (mean age 15.7, 50% female), the risk of positive depression and suicide risk screens increased during the early pandemic period relative to the pre-pandemic period (RD: 3.8%; 95% CI: 2.9, 4.8; RD: 2.8%, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.8). Risk of depression returned to baseline during the late pandemic period, while suicide risk remained slightly elevated (RD: 0.7% 95% CI: -0.4, 1.7; RD: 1.8% 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.7%).

CONCLUSIONS: During the early months of the pandemic, there was an increase in positive depression and suicide risk screens, which later returned to pre-pandemic levels for depression but not suicide risk. Results suggest that pediatricians should continue to prioritize screening adolescents for depressive symptoms and suicide risk and connect them to treatment.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.12.006

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

36584938

Title

Association of Neighborhood Social Context and Perceived Stress Among Mothers of Young Children.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1414-1421

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Chronic parental stress may negatively impact health among both parents and children. Adverse neighborhood social conditions like crime may increase stress while a supportive neighborhood may buffer stress and promote well-being. Our objective was to examine associations between neighborhood social factors and stress among mothers of young children.

METHODS: We surveyed 300 mothers/female caregivers of Medicaid-enrolled 2 to 4-year-old children in Philadelphia. Maternal stress was measured via the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (range 0-40). Mothers' perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were assessed using validated scales. Addresses were geocoded to link census tract-level violent crime rates. We used multivariable linear regression to examine associations of neighborhood safety, collective efficacy, and crime with maternal stress, adjusted for demographics, household socioeconomic status, and neighborhood poverty.

RESULTS: Among mothers (mean age 31, 60% Black/African American), higher perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy were associated with lower stress scores after adjustment for covariates. Each 1-point increase (on a 5-point scale) in perceived neighborhood safety was associated with a 2.30-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -3.07, -1.53). Similarly, each 1-point increase in perceived collective efficacy was associated with a 3.08-point decrease in maternal stress (95% CI: -4.13, -2.02). Police-recorded violent crime rates were not associated with maternal stress.

CONCLUSION: Mothers of young children who perceive their neighborhood social environment more favorably report less stress compared to those who feel their neighborhood environment is less safe and cohesive. Future work is warranted to investigate whether interventions that increase perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy reduce stress.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.03.013

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35346861

Title

Autism Spectrum Disorder Screening During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Large Primary Care Network.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1384-1389

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and screening equity among eligible children presenting for well-child care in a large primary care pediatric network, we compared rates of ASD screening completion and positivity during the pandemic to the year prior, stratified by sociodemographic factors.

METHODS: Patients who presented for in-person well-child care at 16 to 26 months between March 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021 (COVID-19 cohort, n = 24,549) were compared to those who presented between March 1, 2019 and February 29, 2020 (pre-COVID-19 cohort, n = 26,779). Demographics and rates of completion and positivity of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers with Follow-up (M-CHAT/F) were calculated from the electronic health record and compared by cohort using logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Total eligible visits decreased by 8.3% between cohorts, with a greater decline in Black and publicly insured children. In the pre-COVID-19 cohort, 89.0% of eligible children were screened at least once, compared to 86.4% during the pandemic (P < 0.001). Significant declines in screening completion were observed across all sociodemographic groups except among Asian children, with the sharpest declines among non-Hispanic White children. Sociodemographic differences were not observed in screen-positive rates by cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: Well-child visits and ASD screenings declined across groups, but with different patterns by race and ethnicity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings regarding screen-completion rates should not be interpreted as a decline in screening disparities, given differences in who presented for care. Strategies for catch-up screening for all children should be considered.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.04.005

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35460894

Title

Motivational interviewing to promote interconception health: A scoping review of evidence from clinical trials.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1873-5134

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Promoting interconception health can improve birth outcomes and long-term women's health. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based behavior change strategy that can address interconception health behaviors and health care engagement.

OBJECTIVE: This scoping review assessed the evidence for using MI to promote interconception health and assessed features of successful MI interventions.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, CHINAL, and Cochrane databases for clinical trials that involved an MI intervention and at least one comparison group published by 8/31/2021. Interventions occurred during pregnancy or within three months postpartum and outcomes were measured between birth and one year postpartum. We abstracted data on trial characteristics including outcome, population, interventionist training, MI fidelity monitoring, intervention dose, and comparison condition. We examined whether trials that demonstrated statistically significant improvement in outcomes had common features.

RESULTS: There were 37 included studies. Interventions addressed breastfeeding, teen contraception, tobacco, alcohol, or substance use, vaccine acceptance, nutrition, physical activity, and depression. No trials addressed more than one topic. Nineteen studies demonstrated improved outcomes. Interventions during the perinatal or postnatal periods were more likely to demonstrate improved interconception outcomes than interventions in the prenatal period. No other trial characteristics were consistently associated with demonstrating improved outcomes.

DISCUSSION: MI has been applied to a variety of interconception health behaviors, with some promising results, particularly for interventions in the perinatal or postpartum period. Outcomes were not clearly attributable to any other differences in intervention or study design. Further exploring context or implementation may help maximize the potential of MI in interconception health promotion.

PRACTICAL VALUE: MI may be implemented across a range of clinical settings, patient groups, and time points around pregnancy. Interventions on health topics relevant to the interconception period should incorporate perinatal or postpartum components.

DOI

10.1016/j.pec.2022.07.009

Alternate Title

Patient Educ Couns

PMID

35870992

Title

Performance Feedback for Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: A Randomized Trial From the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings Research Network.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that a feedback-based intervention would reduce human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine missed opportunities.

METHODS: In a longitudinal cluster randomized controlled trial of 48 pediatric primary care practices, we allocated half the practices to receive a sequential, multicomponent intervention phased over consecutive periods. In a prior trial (period 1), communication skills training reduced missed opportunities for the initial HPV vaccine dose at well visits but not at acute/chronic visits. The current trial (period 2) evaluated the added value of performance feedback to clinicians after communication training. Performance feedback consisted of an introductory training module, weekly electronic "Quick Tips," and 3 individualized performance feedback reports to clinicians. We fit logistic regression models for the primary outcome of HPV vaccination missed opportunities using generalized estimating equations with independence working correlation, accounting for clustering at the practice level.

RESULTS: Performance feedback resulted in a 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -6.8, 0.0) percentage point greater reduction in missed HPV vaccine opportunities for the intervention versus control group during acute/chronic visits for subsequent HPV vaccinations (dose 2 or 3). However, during well visits for HPV vaccination dose #1, intervention practices increased missed opportunities (worsened) by 4.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 7.4) percentage points more than control practices, reducing the prior period 1 improvements and blunting the overall effect of performance feedback. We did not observe differences for the other visit/dose categories.

CONCLUSIONS: Performance feedback improved HPV vaccination for one subset of visits (acute/chronic, subsequent HPV vaccinations due), but not for well visits.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.006

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35853600

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