First name
Laura
Last name
Mercer-Rosa

Title

Factors associated with discontinuation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia-associated pulmonary hypertension.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1246-1254

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated with discontinuation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy in bronchopulmonary dysplasia-related pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH).

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of neonatal, echocardiographic, and cardiac catheterization data in 121 infants with BPD-PH discharged on pulmonary vasodilator therapy from 2009-2020 and followed into childhood.

RESULT: After median 4.4 years, medications were discontinued in 58%. Those in whom medications were discontinued had fewer days of invasive support, less severe BPD, lower incidence of PDA closure or cardiac catheterization, and higher incidence of fundoplication or tracheostomy decannulation (p < 0.05). On multivariable analysis, likelihood of medication discontinuation was lower with longer period of invasive respiratory support [HR 0.95 (CI:0.91-0.99), p = 0.01] and worse RV dilation on pre-discharge echocardiogram [HR 0.13 (CI:0.03-0.70), p = 0.017]. In those with tracheostomy, likelihood of medication discontinuation was higher with decannulation [HR 10.78 (CI:1.98-58.59), p < 0.001].

CONCLUSION: In BPD-PH, childhood discontinuation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy is associated with markers of disease severity.

DOI

10.1038/s41372-022-01421-6

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

35676536

Title

2-Year Outcomes After Complete or Staged Procedure for Tetralogy of Fallot in Neonates.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1570-1579

Date Published

2019 Sep 24

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the best strategy to treat patients with tetralogy of Fallot who are symptomatic in the neonatal period.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of complete versus staged surgery (i.e., initial palliative procedure for possible later complete repair).

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System database, including patients who underwent complete or staged tetralogy of Fallot repair prior to 30 days of age. The primary outcome was death during 2-year follow-up after the initial procedure. Inverse probability-weighted Cox and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between surgical approach group and mortality while accounting for patient- and hospital-level factors. Causal mediation analyses examined the role of intermediate variables.

RESULTS: A total of 2,363 patients were included (1,032 complete and 1,331 staged). There were 239 deaths. Complete neonatal repair was associated with a significantly higher risk for mortality during the 2-year follow-up period (hazard ratio: 1.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 2.06), between 7 and 30 days after the initial procedure (hazard ratio: 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.41), and during the initial hospital admission (odds ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 2.62). Post-operative cardiac complications were more common in the complete repair group and mediated the differences in 30-day and 2-year mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical repair for neonates with tetralogy of Fallot is associated with a significantly higher risk for early and 2-year mortality compared with the staged approach, after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics. Post-operative cardiac complications mediated these findings.

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2019.05.057

Alternate Title

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

PMID

31537267

Title

Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion does not correlate with right ventricular ejection fraction in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after Fontan palliation.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

1253-8

Date Published

2014 Oct

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

<p>Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) reflects longitudinal myocardial shortening, the main component of right ventricular (RV) contraction in normal hearts. To date, TAPSE has not been extensively studied in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and systemic RVs after Fontan palliation. This retrospective study investigated HLHS patients after Fontan with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) performed between 1 January 2010 and 1 August 2012 and transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) performed within 6 months of CMR. The maximal apical displacement of the lateral tricuspid valve annulus was measured on CMR (using four-chamber cine images) and on TTE (using two-dimensional apical views). To create TTE-TAPSE z-scores, published reference data were used. Intra- and interobserver variability was tested with analysis of variance. Inter-technique agreement of TTE and CMR was tested with Bland-Altman analysis. In this study, 30 CMRs and TTEs from 29 patients were analyzed. The age at CMR was 14.1 ± 7.1 years, performed 11.9 ± 7.8 years after Fontan. For CMR-TAPSE, the intraclass correlation coefficients for inter- and intraobserver variability were 0.89 and 0.91, respectively. The TAPSE measurements were 0.57 ± 0.2 cm on CMR and 0.70 ± 0.2 cm on TTE (TTE-TAPSE z score, -8.7 ± 1.0). The mean difference in TAPSE between CMR and TTE was -0.13 cm [95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.21 to -0.05], with 95 % limits of agreement (-0.55 to 0.29 cm). The study showed no association between CMR-TAPSE and RVEF (R = 0.08; p = 0.67). In patients with HLHS after Fontan, TAPSE is reproducible on CMR and TTE, with good agreement between the two imaging methods. Diminished TAPSE suggests impaired longitudinal shortening in the systemic RV. However, TAPSE is not a surrogate for RVEF in this study population.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00246-014-0924-4

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

24840648

Title

Accuracy of Brain Natriuretic Peptide for Diagnosing Pulmonary Hypertension in Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

147-153

Date Published

2019

ISSN Number

1661-7819

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) are at risk of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used to predict disease severity in adult PH. Its diagnostic utility in sBPD-associated PH is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of this paper was to determine the accuracy of BNP, against echocardiogram (echo), to diagnose PH in infants born &lt;32 weeks' gestation with sBPD.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all infants with sBPD with an echo and BNP within a 24-h period, at ≥36 weeks postmenstrual age. PH was defined as: right ventricular pressure &gt;½ systemic blood pressure estimated from tricuspid regurgitant jet or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) velocity, bidirectional or right-to left-PDA, and/or flat/bowing ventricular septum at end-systole. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to test the diagnostic accuracy of BNP.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 128 infants, 68 (53%) had echo evidence of PH. BNP was higher among the infants with PH (median [interquartile range]: 127 pg/mL [39-290] vs. 35 [20-76], p &lt; 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for diagnosing PH using BNP was 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.83). At an optimal cutpoint of 130 pg/mL, BNP correctly classified the presence or absence of PH in 70% of the infants (specificity: 92, sensitivity: 50%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>BNP, relative to concurrent echo, demonstrated moderate accuracy for diagnosing PH in this cohort of preterm infants with sBPD. BNP may help rule in PH in this population but has low utility to rule out the disease.</p>

DOI

10.1159/000499082

Alternate Title

Neonatology

PMID

31096210

Title

Impact of Maternal-Fetal Environment on Mortality in Children With Single Ventricle Heart Disease.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e020299

Date Published

2022 Jan 18

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p>BACKGROUND Children with single ventricle heart disease have significant morbidity and mortality. The maternal-fetal environment (MFE) may adversely impact outcomes after neonatal cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that impaired MFE would be associated with an increased risk of death after stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. METHODS AND RESULTS We performed a retrospective cohort study of children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (and anatomic variants) who underwent stage 1 Norwood reconstruction between 2008 and 2018. Impaired MFE was defined as maternal gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and/or smoking during pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between impaired MFE and death while adjusting for confounders. Hospital length of stay was assessed with the competing risk of in-hospital death. In 273 children, the median age at stage 1 Norwood reconstruction was 4&nbsp;days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-6 days). A total of 72 children (26%) were exposed to an impaired MFE; they had more preterm births (18% versus 7%) and a greater percentage with low birth weights &lt;2.5&nbsp;kg (18% versus 4%) than those without impaired MFE. Impaired MFE was associated with a higher risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 6.05; 95% CI, 3.59-10.21; &lt;0.001) after adjusting for age at surgery, Hispanic ethnicity, genetic syndrome, cardiac diagnosis, surgeon, and birth era. Children with impaired MFE had almost double the risk of prolonged hospital stay (HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.41-2.70; &lt;0.001). CONCLUSIONS Children exposed to an impaired MFE had a higher risk of death following stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. Prenatal exposures are potentially modifiable factors that can be targeted to improve outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.020299

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35014861

Title

Identifying Risk Factors for Complicated Post-operative Course in Tetralogy of Fallot Using a Machine Learning Approach.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

685855

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2297-055X

Abstract

<p>Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair is associated with excellent operative survival. However, a subset of patients experiences post-operative complications, which can significantly alter the early and late post-operative course. We utilized a machine learning approach to identify risk factors for post-operative complications after TOF repair. We conducted a single-center prospective cohort study of children &lt;2 years of age with TOF undergoing surgical repair. The outcome was occurrence of post-operative cardiac complications, measured between TOF repair and hospital discharge or death. Predictors included patient, operative, and echocardiographic variables, including pre-operative right ventricular strain and fractional area change as measures of right ventricular function. Gradient-boosted quantile regression models (GBM) determined predictors of post-operative complications. Cross-validated GBMs were implemented with and without a filtering stage non-parametric regression model to select a subset of clinically meaningful predictors. Sensitivity analysis with gradient-boosted Poisson regression models was used to examine if the same predictors were identified in the subset of patients with at least one complication. Of the 162 subjects enrolled between March 2012 and May 2018, 43 (26.5%) had at least one post-operative cardiac complication. The most frequent complications were arrhythmia requiring treatment ( = 22, 13.6%), cardiac catheterization ( = 17, 10.5%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) ( = 11, 6.8%). Fifty-six variables were used in the machine learning analysis, of which there were 21 predictors that were already identified from the first-stage regression. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was the highest ranked predictor in all models. Other predictors included gestational age, pre-operative right ventricular (RV) global longitudinal strain, pulmonary valve Z-score, and immediate post-operative arterial oxygen level. Sensitivity analysis identified similar predictors, confirming the robustness of these findings across models. Cardiac complications after TOF repair are prevalent in a quarter of patients. A prolonged surgery remains an important predictor of post-operative complications; however, other perioperative factors are likewise important, including pre-operative right ventricular remodeling. This study identifies potential opportunities to optimize the surgical repair for TOF to diminish post-operative complications and secure improved clinical outcomes. Efforts toward optimizing pre-operative ventricular remodeling might mitigate post-operative complications and help reduce future morbidity.</p>

DOI

10.3389/fcvm.2021.685855

Alternate Title

Front Cardiovasc Med

PMID

34368247

Title

Resource Use and Outcomes of Pediatric Congenital Heart Disease Admissions: 2003 to 2016.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e018286

Date Published

2021 Feb 06

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are known to consume a disproportionate share of resources, yet there are limited data concerning trends in resource use and mortality among admitted children with CHD. We hypothesize that charges in CHD-related admissions increased but that mortality improved over time. <strong>Methods and Results</strong> This study, including patients &lt;18&nbsp;years old with CHD, examined inpatient admissions from the nationally representative Kids' Inpatient Database from 2003 to 2016 in order to assess the frequency, medical complexity, and outcomes of CHD hospital admissions. A total of 859&nbsp;843 admissions of children with CHD were identified. CHD admissions increased by 31.8% from 2003 to 2016, whereas overall pediatric admissions decreased by 13.4%. Compared with non-CHD admissions, those with CHD were more likely to be &lt;1&nbsp;year of age (80.5% versus 63.3%), and to have ≥1 complex chronic condition (39.7% versus 9.3%). For CHD admissions, mortality was higher (2.97% versus 0.31%) and adjusted median charges greater ($48&nbsp;426 [interquartile range (IQR), $11.932-$161&nbsp;048] versus $4697 [IQR, $2551-$12&nbsp;301]) (&lt;0.0001 for all). Among CHD admissions, whereas adjusted median charges increased from $35&nbsp;577 (IQR, $9303-$110&nbsp;439) to $61&nbsp;696 (IQR, $15&nbsp;212-$219&nbsp;237), mortality decreased from 3.2% to 2.7% ( &lt;0.0001). CHD admissions accounted for an increased proportion of all inpatient deaths, from 18.0% in 2003 to 24.5% in 2016. <strong>Conclusions</strong> Children admitted with CHD are 10 times more likely to die than those without CHD and have higher charges. Although the rate of mortality in CHD admissions decreased, children with CHD accounted for an increasing proportion of all pediatric inpatient deaths. Effective resource allocation is critical to optimize outcomes in these high-risk patients.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.018286

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

33554612

Title

Echocardiographic strain analysis reflects impaired ventricular function in youth with pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Oct 03

ISSN Number

1540-8175

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Strain analysis with speckle-tracking echocardiography shows promise as a screening tool for silent myocardial dysfunction in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE). We compared left ventricular (LV) systolic deformation (measured by strain) in children and adolescents with pSLE to controls, and assessed the relationship between strain, disease activity, and other noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Twenty pSLE subjects ages 9-21 underwent comprehensive cardiovascular testing, including 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), peripheral endothelial function testing, pulse wave velocity and analysis, and carotid ultrasound. Longitudinal apical-4 chamber (LS ) and midpoint circumferential strain (CS ) were compared to that of 70 healthy controls using multivariable linear regression. Among pSLE subjects, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate relationships between global longitudinal or circumferential strain and other measures of cardiovascular health.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Average SLE disease duration was 3.2&nbsp;years (standard deviation [SD] 2.1). 2/20 pSLE subjects had persistent disease activity, and only one met criteria for hypertension by ABPM. LS was significantly reduced in pSLE subjects compared to controls (mean -18.3 [SD 3.2] vs -21.8% [SD 2.2], P-value &lt;.001). There was no significant difference in CS (-24.8 [SD 3.7] vs -25.7% [SD 3.4], P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.29). Among pSLE subjects, decreased nocturnal blood pressure dipping on ABPM was associated with reduced global circumferential strain (r -0.59, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.01).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Longitudinal myocardial deformation is impaired in pSLE patients despite clinical remission and may represent early myocardial damage. Strain analysis should be considered in addition to standard echocardiographic assessment during follow-up of patients with pSLE.</p>

DOI

10.1111/echo.14872

PMID

33009676

Title

Resource Utilization in the First 2 Years Following Operative Correction for Tetralogy of Fallot: Study Using Data From the Optum's De-Identified Clinformatics Data Mart Insurance Claims Database.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e016581

Date Published

2020 Jul 21

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p><strong>Background</strong> Despite excellent operative survival, correction of tetralogy of Fallot frequently is accompanied by residual lesions that may affect health beyond the incident hospitalization. Measuring resource utilization, specifically cost and length of stay, provides an integrated measure of morbidity not appreciable in traditional outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>Methods and Results</strong> We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using de-identified commercial insurance claims data, of 269 children who underwent operative correction of tetralogy of Fallot from January 2004 to September 2015 with ≥2&nbsp;years of continuous follow-up (1) to describe resource utilization for the incident hospitalization and subsequent 2&nbsp;years, (2) to determine whether prolonged length of stay (&gt;7&nbsp;days) in the incident hospitalization was associated with increased subsequent resource utilization, and (3) to explore whether there was regional variation in resource utilization with both direct comparisons and multivariable models adjusting for known covariates. Subjects with prolonged incident hospitalization length of stay demonstrated greater resource utilization (total cost as well as counts of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and catheterizations) after hospital discharge (&lt;0.0001 for each), though the number of subsequent operative and transcatheter interventions were not significantly different. Regional differences were observed in the cost of incident hospitalization as well as subsequent hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and the costs associated with each.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions</strong> This study is the first to report short- and medium-term resource utilization following tetralogy of Fallot operative correction. It also demonstrates that prolonged length of stay in the initial hospitalization is associated with increased subsequent resource utilization. This should motivate research to determine whether these differences are because of modifiable factors.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.016581

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

32691679

Title

Nocturnal blood pressure dipping as a marker of endothelial function and subclinical atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

129

Date Published

2020 Jun 03

ISSN Number

1478-6362

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Loss of the normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure (BP), known as non-dipping, is a potential measure of cardiovascular risk identified by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We sought to determine whether non-dipping is a useful marker of abnormal vascular function and subclinical atherosclerosis in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Twenty subjects 9-19 years of age with pSLE underwent ABPM, peripheral endothelial function testing, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity/analysis for aortic stiffness, and carotid intima-media thickness. We assessed the prevalence of non-dipping and other ABPM abnormalities. Pearson or Spearman rank correlation tests were used to evaluate relationships between nocturnal BP dipping, BP load (% of abnormally elevated BPs over 24-h), and vascular outcome measures.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The majority (75%) of subjects had inactive disease, with mean disease duration of 3.2 years (± 2.1). The prevalence of non-dipping was 50%, which occurred even in the absence of nocturnal or daytime hypertension. Reduced diastolic BP dipping was associated with poorer endothelial function (r 0.5, p = 0.04). Intima-media thickness was significantly greater in subjects with non-dipping (mean standard deviation score of 3.0 vs 1.6, p = 0.02). In contrast, higher systolic and diastolic BP load were associated with increased aortic stiffness (ρ 0.6, p = 0.01 and ρ 0.7, p &lt; 0.01, respectively), but not with endothelial function or intima-media thickness.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>In a pSLE cohort with low disease activity, isolated nocturnal BP non-dipping is prevalent and associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic changes. In addition to hypertension assessment, ABPM has a promising role in risk stratification and understanding heterogeneous mechanisms of cardiovascular disease in pSLE.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s13075-020-02224-w

Alternate Title

Arthritis Res. Ther.

PMID

32493472

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