First name
Charles
Middle name
E
Last name
Canter

Title

Survival Without Cardiac Transplantation Among Children With Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

2663-2673

Date Published

2017 Nov 28

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies of children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) have suggested that improved survival has been primarily due to utilization of heart transplantation.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine transplant-free survival for these children over 20 years and identify the clinical characteristics at diagnosis that predicted death.

METHODS: Children <18 years of age with some type of DCM enrolled in the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry were divided by year of diagnosis into an early cohort (1990 to 1999) and a late cohort (2000 to 2009). Competing risks and multivariable modeling were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of death, transplant, and echocardiographic normalization by cohort and to identify the factors associated with death.

RESULTS: Of 1,953 children, 1,199 were in the early cohort and 754 were in the late cohort. Most children in both cohorts had idiopathic DCM (64% vs. 63%, respectively). Median age (1.6 vs. 1.7 years), left ventricular end-diastolic z-scores (+4.2 vs. +4.2), and left ventricular fractional shortening (16% vs. 17%) at diagnosis were similar between cohorts. Although the rates of echocardiographic normalization (30% and 27%) and heart transplantation (24% and 24%) were similar, the death rate was higher in the early cohort than in the late cohort (18% vs. 9%; p = 0.04). Being in the early cohort (hazard ratio: 1.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 1.9; p = 0.03) independently predicted death.

CONCLUSIONS: Children with DCM have improved survival in the more recent era. This appears to be associated with factors other than heart transplantation, which was equally prevalent in both eras. (Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry [PCMR]; NCT00005391).

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2017.09.1089

Alternate Title

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

PMID

29169474

Title

The genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 10

ISSN Number

1537-6605

Abstract

<p>To understand the genetic contribution to primary pediatric cardiomyopathy, we performed exome sequencing in a large cohort of 528 children with cardiomyopathy. Using clinical interpretation guidelines and targeting genes implicated in cardiomyopathy, we identified a genetic cause in 32% of affected individuals. Cardiomyopathy sub-phenotypes differed by ancestry, age at diagnosis, and family history. Infants &lt; 1 year were less likely to have a molecular diagnosis (p &lt; 0.001). Using a discovery set of 1,703 candidate genes and informatic tools, we identified rare and damaging variants in 56% of affected individuals. We see an excess burden of damaging variants in affected individuals as compared to two independent control sets, 1000 Genomes Project (p &lt; 0.001) and SPARK parental controls (p &lt; 1&nbsp;× 10). Cardiomyopathy variant burden remained enriched when stratified by ancestry, variant type, and sub-phenotype, emphasizing the importance of understanding the contribution of these factors to genetic architecture. Enrichment in this discovery candidate gene set suggests multigenic mechanisms underlie sub-phenotype-specific causes and presentations of cardiomyopathy. These results identify important information about the genetic architecture of pediatric cardiomyopathy and support recommendations for clinical genetic testing in children while illustrating differences in genetic architecture by age, ancestry, and sub-phenotype and providing rationale for larger studies to investigate multigenic contributions.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.12.006

Alternate Title

Am J Hum Genet

PMID

35026164

Title

Genetic Causes of Cardiomyopathy in Children: First Results From the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Genes Study.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e017731

Date Published

2021 Apr 28

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

<p>Background Pediatric cardiomyopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disease with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend genetic testing in children with hypertrophic, dilated, or restrictive cardiomyopathy, but practice variations exist. Robust data on clinical testing practices and diagnostic yield in children are lacking. This study aimed to identify the genetic causes of cardiomyopathy in children and to investigate clinical genetic testing practices. Methods and Results Children with familial or idiopathic cardiomyopathy were enrolled from 14 institutions in North America. Probands underwent exome sequencing. Rare sequence variants in 37 known cardiomyopathy genes were assessed for pathogenicity using consensus clinical interpretation guidelines. Of the 152 enrolled probands, 41% had a family history of cardiomyopathy. Of 81 (53%) who had undergone clinical genetic testing for cardiomyopathy before enrollment, 39 (48%) had a positive result. Genetic testing rates varied from 0% to 97% between sites. A positive family history and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy subtype were associated with increased likelihood of genetic testing (=0.005 and =0.03, respectively). A molecular cause was identified in an additional 21% of the 63 children who did not undergo clinical testing, with positive results identified in both familial and idiopathic cases and across all phenotypic subtypes. Conclusions A definitive molecular genetic diagnosis can be made in a substantial proportion of children for whom the cause and heritable nature of their cardiomyopathy was previously unknown. Practice variations in genetic testing are great and should be reduced. Improvements can be made in comprehensive cardiac screening and predictive genetic testing in first-degree relatives. Overall, our results support use of routine genetic testing in cases of both familial and idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01873963.</p>

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.120.017731

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

33906374

Title

Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy: Study Design and Recruitment Results from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1-10

Date Published

2019 Jun

ISSN Number

1058-9813

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Cardiomyopathies are a rare cause of pediatric heart disease, but they are one of the leading causes of heart failure admissions, sudden death, and need for heart transplant in childhood. Reports from the Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry (PCMR) have shown that almost 40% of children presenting with symptomatic cardiomyopathy either die or undergo heart transplant within 2 years of presentation. Little is known regarding circulating biomarkers as predictors of outcome in pediatric cardiomyopathy.</p>

<p><strong>Study Design: </strong>The Cardiac Biomarkers in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy (PCM Biomarkers) study is a multi-center prospective study conducted by the PCMR investigators to identify serum biomarkers for predicting outcome in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Patients less than 21 years of age with either DCM or HCM were eligible. Those with DCM were enrolled into cohorts based on time from cardiomyopathy diagnosis: categorized as new onset or chronic. Clinical endpoints included sudden death and progressive heart failure.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 288 children diagnosed at a mean age of 7.2±6.3 years who enrolled in the PCM Biomarkers Study at a median time from diagnosis to enrollment of 1.9 years. There were 80 children enrolled in the new onset DCM cohort, defined as diagnosis at or 12 months prior to enrollment. The median age at diagnosis for the new onset DCM was 1.7 years and median time from diagnosis to enrollment was 0.1 years. There were 141 children enrolled with either chronic DCM or chronic HCM, defined as children ≥2 years from diagnosis to enrollment. Among children with chronic cardiomyopathy, median age at diagnosis was 3.4 years and median time from diagnosis to enrollment was 4.8 years.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The PCM Biomarkers study is evaluating the predictive value of serum biomarkers to aid in the prognosis and management of children with DCM and HCM. The results will provide valuable information where data are lacking in children.</p>

<p><strong>Clinical Trial Registration NCT01873976: </strong>https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01873976?term=PCM+Biomarker&amp;…;

DOI

10.1016/j.ppedcard.2019.02.004

Alternate Title

Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol.

PMID

31745384

Title

No Obesity Paradox in Pediatric Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

222-230

Date Published

2018 Mar

ISSN Number

2213-1787

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>This study aimed to examine the role of nutrition in pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).</p>

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>In adults with DCM, malnutrition is associated with mortality, whereas obesity is associated with survival.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry was used to identify patients with DCM and categorized by anthropometric measurements: malnourished (MN) (body mass index [BMI]&nbsp;&lt;5% for&nbsp;≥2 years or weight-for-length&nbsp;&lt;5% for&nbsp;&lt;2 years), obesity (BMI &gt;95% for age&nbsp;≥2 years or weight-for-length &gt;95% for&nbsp;&lt;2 years), or normal bodyweight (NB). Of 904 patients with DCM, 23.7% (214) were MN, 13.3% (120) were obese, and 63.1% (570) were NB.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Obese patients were older (9.0 vs. 5.7 years for NB; p&nbsp;&lt; 0.001) and more likely to have a family history of DCM (36.1% vs. 23.5% for NB; p&nbsp;= 0.023). MN patients were younger (2.7 years vs. 5.7 years for NB; p&nbsp;&lt; 0.001) and more likely to have heart failure (79.9% vs. 69.7% for NB; p&nbsp;= 0.012), cardiac dimension z-scores &gt;2, and higher ventricular mass compared with NB. In multivariable analysis, MN was associated with increased risk of death (hazard&nbsp;ratio [HR]: 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66 to 3.65; p&nbsp;&lt; 0.001); whereas obesity was not (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 0.72 to 3.08). Competing outcomes analysis demonstrated increased risk of mortality for MN compared with NB (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.03), but no difference in transplant rate (p&nbsp;= 0.159).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Malnutrition is associated with increased mortality and other unfavorable echocardiographic and clinical&nbsp;outcomes compared with those of NB. The same effect of obesity on survival was not observed. Further studies are needed investigating the long-term impact of abnormal anthropometric measurements on outcomes in pediatric DCM. (Pediatric&nbsp;Cardiomyopathy Registry; NCT00005391).</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jchf.2017.11.015

Alternate Title

JACC Heart Fail

PMID

29428438

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