First name
Hans
Last name
Petersen

Title

Outcomes of human adenovirus infection and disease in a retrospective cohort of pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

e13510

Date Published

2019 Jun 18

ISSN Number

1399-3046

Abstract

<p>Information about HAdV infection in SOT recipients is limited. We aimed to describe HAdV infection epidemiology and outcomes in a single-center retrospective cohort during the era of PCR availability. SOT recipients transplanted at the CHOP 2004-2013 were followed up for 180&nbsp;days post-transplant. HAdV infection was defined as a positive HAdV PCR from a clinical specimen. HAdV disease was defined by organ-specific radiologic and/or laboratory abnormalities. No HAdV surveillance protocols were employed during the study period; testing was solely per clinician discretion. Progression of HAdV infection was defined as HAdV disease or ≥1-log viral load increase since a corresponding site's first positive specimen. Of the assembled 425 SOT recipients, 227 (52.6%) had ≥1 HAdV PCR. Twenty-four (10.6%) had ≥1 HAdV-positive PCR. HAdV-positive subjects were younger than uninfected subjects (2.0&nbsp;years vs 6.5, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.001). Infection incidence rates were highest in liver recipients (15.3%), followed by heart (8.6%), kidney (8.3%), and lung (4.2%). Four subjects (16.7%) met HAdV disease criteria at virus detection. Five subjects (20.8%) had progression of HAdV infection. All-cause mortality rates in positive and negative subjects were 0% and 3.9%, respectively. HAdV infection was infrequently detected in SOT recipients. Over one-third of HAdV-positive patients met disease criteria at detection or had infection progression, but none died. This low all-cause mortality raises questions about benefits of HAdV surveillance. Larger multicenter studies are needed to assess incidence variance by center and comparative effectiveness of therapeutic interventions.</p>

DOI

10.1111/petr.13510

Alternate Title

Pediatr Transplant

PMID

31210395

Title

Outcomes of Human Adenovirus Infection and Disease in a Retrospective Cohort of Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Jun 08

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are associated with significant morbidity and death after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we sought to determine the incidence of HAdV infection among pediatric HCT recipients in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing era, identify risk factors for viremia among patients undergoing HAdV surveillance, and assess the effectiveness of preemptive cidofovir.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>A single-center retrospective cohort of patients who underwent a transplant within a 10-year period was assembled. The incidence of and outcomes of patients with HAdV infection and disease were determined by PCR results and chart review. A Cox regression model was used for surveilled allogeneic HCT recipients to identify factors associated with viremia. We also used a discrete-time failure model with inverse probability treatment weights to assess the effectiveness of preemptive cidofovir for infection.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 572 HCT recipients, 76 (13.3%) had ≥1 sample that was HAdV PCR positive (3.5% of autologous HCT recipients and 19.7% of allogeneic HCT recipients). Among 191 allogeneic HCT recipients under surveillance, 58 (30.4%) had HAdV detected from any source, and 50 (26.2%) specifically had viremia. The mortality rate was higher in allogeneic HCT recipients with HAdV infection versus those without infection (25.9% vs 11.3%; P = .01). Factors associated with infection included an age of 6 to 12 years, an absolute lymphocyte count of &lt;200 cells/μL, recent prednisone exposure, and recent bacteremia. Preemptive cidofovir was not associated with a reduced risk of infection progression (odds ratio, 0.96 [95% confidence interval, 0.30-3.05]).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>HAdV infection is common and associated with an increased rate of death after allogeneic HCT. Using prediction models that incorporate factors associated with HAdV might help target surveillance. Preemptive cidofovir therapy was not protective in a subset of HAdV-positive patients. Larger observational or randomized investigations are necessary, because the utility of surveillance requires effective preemptive therapies.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piy049

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

29893957

Title

Invasive Fungal Disease in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Jun 15

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD). Data on IFD burden in pediatric patients are limited. We aimed to determine the incidence and outcome of IFD in a large cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>A single-center cohort of pediatric patients who underwent SOT between 2000 and 2013 was assembled retrospectively. The patients were followed for 180 days after transplant or until death to determine the presence or absence of IFD. The 2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group Consensus Group criteria were used to define IFD as proven or probable. The incidence of IFD, all-cause mortality rate, and case-fatality rate at 180 days were calculated.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 584 pediatric patients who underwent SOT, 13 patients sustained 14 episodes of IFD (candidiasis, aspergillosis, and mucormycosis). The overall incidence was 2.2% (14.3 IFD events per 100000 patient-days). The IFD rates according to transplant type were 12.5% (1 of 8) (heart/lung), 11.4% (4 of 35) (lung), 4.7% (8 of 172) (liver), 0% (0 of 234) (kidney), and 0% (0 of 135) (heart). Three patients with IFD (2 lung and 1 heart/lung) died, and all these deaths were deemed likely attributable to the IFD; the case-fatality rate was 21.4% (3 of 14).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The overall incidence of IFD in these pediatric SOT recipients was low but varied across transplant type, with heart/lung and lung recipients having the highest IFD rate. Given the attributable case-fatality rate, the risk of death resulting from IFD is potentially high. More data on groups at higher risk, such as lung transplant recipients, are needed to guide targeted antifungal prophylaxis.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/pix041

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

28992290

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