Leading initial
C
First name
Michael
Last name
Cotten

Title

Impact of Early-Onset Sepsis and Antibiotic Use on Death or Survival with Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 2 Years of Age among Extremely Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

39-46.e5

Date Published

2020 Jun

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that early-onset sepsis increases risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among preterm infants; and that among infants without early-onset sepsis, prolonged early antibiotics alters risk of death/NDI.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of infants born at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers (2006-2014) at 22-26 weeks of gestation and birth weight 401-1000 g. Early-onset sepsis defined as growth of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture ≤72 hours after birth. Prolonged early antibiotics was defined as antibiotics initiated ≤72 hours and continued ≥5 days without culture-confirmed infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, or spontaneous perforation. Primary outcome was death before follow-up or NDI assessed at 18-26 months corrected age. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and CI for early-onset sepsis outcomes. A propensity score for receiving prolonged antibiotics was derived from early clinical factors and used to match infants (1:1) with and without prolonged antibiotic exposure. Log binomial models were used to estimate aRR for outcomes in matched infants.

RESULTS: Among 6565 infants, those with early-onset sepsis had higher aRR (95% CI) for death/NDI compared with infants managed with prolonged antibiotics (1.18 [1.06-1.32]) and to infants without prolonged antibiotics (1.23 [1.10-1.37]). Propensity score matching was achieved for 4362 infants. No significant difference in death/NDI (1.04 [0.98-1.11]) was observed with or without prolonged antibiotics among the matched cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset sepsis was associated with increased risk of death/NDI among extremely preterm infants. Among matched infants without culture-confirmed infection, prolonged early antibiotic administration was not associated with death/NDI.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.038

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

32446491

Title

Neurodevelopmental outcomes following neonatal late-onset sepsis and blood culture-negative conditions.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 21

ISSN Number

1468-2052

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Determine risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS) versus late-onset, antibiotic-treated, blood culture-negative conditions (LOCNC).</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Retrospective cohort study.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>24 neonatal centres.</p>

<p><strong>PATIENTS: </strong>Infants born 1/1/2006-31/12/2014, at 22-26 weeks gestation, with birth weight 401-1000 g and surviving &gt;7 days were included. Infants with early-onset sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, intestinal perforation or both LOS and LOCNC were excluded.</p>

<p><strong>EXPOSURES: </strong>LOS and LOCNC were defined as antibiotic administration for ≥5 days with and without a positive blood/cerebrospinal fluid culture, respectively. Infants with these diagnoses were also compared with infants with neither condition.</p>

<p><strong>OUTCOMES: </strong>Death or NDI was assessed at 18-26 months corrected age follow-up. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks adjusting for covariates occurring ≤7 days of age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 7354 eligible infants, 3940 met inclusion criteria: 786 (20%) with LOS, 1601 (41%) with LOCNC and 1553 (39%) with neither. Infants with LOS had higher adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for death/NDI (1.14 (1.05 to 1.25)) and death before follow-up (1.71 (1.44 to 2.03)) than those with LOCNC. Among survivors, risk for NDI did not differ between the two groups (0.99 (0.86 to 1.13)) but was higher for LOCNC infants (1.17 (1.04 to 1.31)) compared with unaffected infants.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Infants with LOS had higher risk of death, but not NDI, compared with infants with LOCNC. Surviving infants with LOCNC had higher risk of NDI compared with unaffected infants. Improving outcomes for infants with LOCNC requires study of the underlying conditions and the potential impact of antibiotic exposure.</p>

DOI

10.1136/archdischild-2020-320664

Alternate Title

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed

PMID

33478957

Title

Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis 2015 to 2017, the Rise of Escherichia coli, and the Need for Novel Prevention Strategies.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e200593

Date Published

2020 May 04

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Early-onset sepsis (EOS) remains a potentially fatal newborn condition. Ongoing surveillance is critical to optimize prevention and treatment strategies.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To describe the current incidence, microbiology, morbidity, and mortality of EOS among a cohort of term and preterm infants.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This prospective surveillance study included a cohort of infants born at a gestational age (GA) of at least 22 weeks and birth weight of greater than 400 g from 18 centers of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network from April 1, 2015, to March 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from June 14, 2019, to January 28, 2020.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Early-onset sepsis defined by isolation of pathogenic species from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture within 72 hours of birth and antibiotic treatment for at least 5 days or until death.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 235 EOS cases (127 male [54.0%]) were identified among 217 480 newborns (1.08 [95% CI, 0.95-1.23] cases per 1000 live births). Incidence varied significantly by GA and was highest among infants with a GA of 22 to 28 weeks (18.47 [95% CI, 14.57-23.38] cases per 1000). No significant differences in EOS incidence were observed by sex, race, or ethnicity. The most frequent pathogens were Escherichia coli (86 [36.6%]) and group B streptococcus (GBS; 71 [30.2%]). E coli disease primarily occurred among preterm infants (68 of 131 [51.9%]); GBS disease primarily occurred among term infants (54 of 104 [51.9%]), with 24 of 45 GBS cases (53.3%) seen in infants born to mothers with negative GBS screening test results. Intrapartum antibiotics were administered to 162 mothers (68.9%; 110 of 131 [84.0%] preterm and 52 of 104 [50.0%] term), most commonly for suspected chorioamnionitis. Neonatal empirical antibiotic treatment most frequently included ampicillin and gentamicin. All GBS isolates were tested, but only 18 of 81 (22.2%) E coli isolates tested were susceptible to ampicillin; 6 of 77 E coli isolates (7.8%) were resistant to both ampicillin and gentamicin. Nearly all newborns with EOS (220 of 235 [93.6%]) displayed signs of illness within 72 hours of birth. Death occurred in 38 of 131 infected infants with GA of less than 37 weeks (29.0%); no term infants died. Compared with earlier surveillance (2006-2009), the rate of E coli infection increased among very low-birth-weight (401-1500 g) infants (8.68 [95% CI, 6.50-11.60] vs 5.07 [95% CI, 3.93-6.53] per 1000 live births; P = .008).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this study, EOS incidence and associated mortality disproportionately occurred in preterm infants. Contemporary cases have demonstrated the limitations of current GBS prevention strategies. The increase in E coli infections among very low-birth-weight infants warrants continued study. Ampicillin and gentamicin remained effective antibiotics in most cases, but ongoing surveillance should monitor antibiotic susceptibilities of EOS pathogens.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0593

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

32364598

Title

Prolonged duration of early antibiotic therapy in extremely premature infants.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jan 22

ISSN Number

1530-0447

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Prolonged early antibiotics in extremely premature infants may have negative effects. We aimed to assess prevalence and outcomes of provision of prolonged early antibiotics to extremely premature infants in the absence of culture-confirmed infection or NEC.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cohort study of infants from 13 centers born without a major birth defect from 2008-2014 who were 401-1000 grams birth weight, 22-28 weeks gestation, and survived ≥5 days without culture-confirmed infection, NEC, or spontaneous intestinal perforation. We determined the proportion of infants who received prolonged early antibiotics, defined as ≥5 days of antibiotic therapy started at ≤72 h of age, by center and over time. Associations between prolonged early antibiotics and adverse outcomes were assessed using multivariable logistic regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 5730 infants were included. The proportion of infants receiving prolonged early antibiotics varied from 30-69% among centers and declined from 49% in 2008 to 35% in 2014. Prolonged early antibiotics was not significantly associated with death (adjusted odds ratio 1.17 [95% CI: 0.99-1.40], p = 0.07) and was not associated with NEC.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The proportion of extremely premature infants receiving prolonged early antibiotics decreased, but significant center variation persists. Prolonged early antibiotics were not significantly associated with increased odds of death or NEC.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41390-019-0300-4

Alternate Title

Pediatr. Res.

PMID

30737489

Title

Identification of Extremely Premature Infants at Low Risk for Early-Onset Sepsis.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Oct 05

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Premature infants are at high risk of early-onset sepsis (EOS) relative to term infants, and most are administered empirical antibiotics after birth. We aimed to determine if factors evident at birth could be used to identify premature infants at lower risk of EOS.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Study infants were born at 22 to 28 weeks' gestation in Neonatal Research Network centers from 2006 to 2014. EOS was defined by isolation of pathogenic species from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture at ≤72 hours age. Infants were hypothesized as "low risk" for EOS when delivered via cesarean delivery, with membrane rupture at delivery, and absence of clinical chorioamnionitis. Frequency of prolonged antibiotics (≥5 days) was compared between low-risk infants and all others. Risks of mortality, EOS, and other morbidities were assessed by using regression models adjusted for center, race, antenatal steroid use, multiple birth, sex, gestation, and birth weight.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 15 433 infants, 5759 (37%) met low-risk criteria. EOS incidence among infants surviving &gt;12 hours was 29 out of 5640 (0.5%) in the low-risk group versus 209 out of 8422 (2.5%) in the comparison group (adjusted relative risk = 0.24 [95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.36]). Low-risk infants also had significantly lower combined risk of EOS or death ≤12 hours. Prolonged antibiotics were administered to 34% of low-risk infants versus 47% of comparison infants without EOS.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Delivery characteristics of extremely preterm infants can be used to identify those with significantly lower incidence of EOS. Recognition of differential risk may help guide decisions to limit early antibiotic use among approximately one-third of these infants.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2017-0925

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

28982710

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