First name
Brian
Middle name
P
Last name
Jenssen

Title

Neighborhood Greenspace and Changes in Pediatric Obesity During COVID-19.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

33-41

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1873-2607

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Pediatric obesity rates increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined the associations of neighborhood greenspace with changes in pediatric obesity during the pandemic.

METHODS: Electronic health record data from a large pediatric primary care network were extracted to create a retrospective cohort of patients aged 2-17 years with a visit in each of 2 periods: June 2019-December 2019 (before pandemic) and June 2020-December 2020 (pandemic). Multivariable longitudinal generalized estimating equations Poisson regression estimated the associations of census tract‒level Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with (1) changes in obesity risk during the pandemic and (2) risk of new-onset obesity among children who were not obese prepandemic. Analyses were conducted between November 2021 and May 2022.

RESULTS: Among 81,418 children (mean age: 8.4 years, 18% Black), the percentage of children who were obese increased by 3.2% during the pandemic. Children in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Quartiles 2-4 had smaller increases in obesity risk during the pandemic than those in Quartile 1 (risk ratio=0.96, 95% CI=0.93, 0.99; Quartile 3 risk ratio=0.95; 95% CI=0.91, 0.98; Quartile 4 risk ratio=0.95, 95% CI=0.92, 0.99). Among the subset who were not obese before the pandemic, children in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index quartiles 3-4 had a lower risk of new-onset obesity during the pandemic (Quartile 3 risk ratio=0.82, 95% CI=0.71, 0.95; Quartile 4 risk ratio=0.73, 95% CI=0.62, 0.85). Higher Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was associated with smaller increases in obesity risk and lower risk of new-onset obesity among children in urban and suburban areas, but results were in the opposite direction for children in rural areas.

CONCLUSIONS: Children living in greener neighborhoods experienced smaller increases in obesity during the pandemic than children in less green neighborhoods, although findings differed by urbanicity.

DOI

10.1016/j.amepre.2022.07.014

Alternate Title

Am J Prev Med

PMID

36116998

Title

Trends in Positive Depression and Suicide Risk Screens in Pediatric Primary Care during COVID-19.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Adolescent mental health concerns increased during COVID-19, but it is unknown whether early increases in depression and suicide risk have been sustained. We examined changes in positive screens for depression and suicide risk in a large pediatric primary care network through May 2022.

METHODS: Using an observational repeated cross-sectional design, we examined changes in depression and suicide risk during the pandemic using electronic health record data from adolescents. Segmented logistic regression was used to estimate risk differences (RD) for positive depression and suicide risk screens during the early pandemic (June 2020-May 2021) and late pandemic (June 2021-May 2022) relative to before the pandemic (March 2018-February 2020). Models adjusted for seasonality and standard errors accounted for clustering by practice.

RESULTS: Among 222,668 visits for 115,627 adolescents (mean age 15.7, 50% female), the risk of positive depression and suicide risk screens increased during the early pandemic period relative to the pre-pandemic period (RD: 3.8%; 95% CI: 2.9, 4.8; RD: 2.8%, 95% CI: 1.7, 3.8). Risk of depression returned to baseline during the late pandemic period, while suicide risk remained slightly elevated (RD: 0.7% 95% CI: -0.4, 1.7; RD: 1.8% 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.7%).

CONCLUSIONS: During the early months of the pandemic, there was an increase in positive depression and suicide risk screens, which later returned to pre-pandemic levels for depression but not suicide risk. Results suggest that pediatricians should continue to prioritize screening adolescents for depressive symptoms and suicide risk and connect them to treatment.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.12.006

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

36584938

Title

Autism Spectrum Disorder Screening During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Large Primary Care Network.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1384-1389

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and screening equity among eligible children presenting for well-child care in a large primary care pediatric network, we compared rates of ASD screening completion and positivity during the pandemic to the year prior, stratified by sociodemographic factors.

METHODS: Patients who presented for in-person well-child care at 16 to 26 months between March 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021 (COVID-19 cohort, n = 24,549) were compared to those who presented between March 1, 2019 and February 29, 2020 (pre-COVID-19 cohort, n = 26,779). Demographics and rates of completion and positivity of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers with Follow-up (M-CHAT/F) were calculated from the electronic health record and compared by cohort using logistic regression models.

RESULTS: Total eligible visits decreased by 8.3% between cohorts, with a greater decline in Black and publicly insured children. In the pre-COVID-19 cohort, 89.0% of eligible children were screened at least once, compared to 86.4% during the pandemic (P < 0.001). Significant declines in screening completion were observed across all sociodemographic groups except among Asian children, with the sharpest declines among non-Hispanic White children. Sociodemographic differences were not observed in screen-positive rates by cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: Well-child visits and ASD screenings declined across groups, but with different patterns by race and ethnicity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings regarding screen-completion rates should not be interpreted as a decline in screening disparities, given differences in who presented for care. Strategies for catch-up screening for all children should be considered.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.04.005

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35460894

Title

Autism Spectrum Disorder Screening during the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Large Primary Care Network.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Apr 20

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on screening for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and screening equity among eligible children presenting for well-child care in a large primary care pediatric network, we compared rates of ASD screening completion and positivity during the pandemic to the year prior, stratified by socio-demographic factors.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Patients who presented for in-person well-child care at 16-26 months between 3/1/2020 and 2/28/2021 (COVID-19 cohort, n=24,549) were compared to those who presented between 3/1/2019 and 2/29/2020 (pre-COVID-19 cohort, n= 26,779). Demographics and rates of completion and positivity of the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers with Follow-up (M-CHAT/F) were calculated from the electronic health record (EHR) and compared by cohort using logistic regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Total eligible visits decreased by 8.3% between cohorts, with a greater decline in Black and publicly insured children. In the pre-COVID-19 cohort, 89.0% of eligible children were screened at least once, compared to 86.4% during the pandemic (p&lt;0.001). Significant declines in screening completion were observed across all socio-demographic groups except among Asian children, with the sharpest declines among non-Hispanic White children. Socio-demographic differences were not observed in screen-positive rates by cohort.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Well-child visits and ASD screenings declined across groups, but with different patterns by race and ethnicity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings regarding screen-completion rates should not be interpreted as a decline in screening disparities, given differences in who presented for care. Strategies for catch-up screening for all children should be considered.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.04.005

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35460894

Title

Innovation in the pediatric electronic health record to realize a more effective platform.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

101109

Date Published

2021 Dec 08

ISSN Number

1538-3199

Abstract

<p>Commercial electronic health records (EHRs) were first developed to automate business processes. As EHRs developed, design principles focused on transferring existing paper-based documentation to comparable electronic forms. In addition, a strong industry focus on adult healthcare settings and quality measures has limited attention and resources for high priority EHR functionality needed for the unique health care of children. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of innovation in the EHR, that includes a variety of established and emerging technologies that may help realize a more effective EHR in child health settings. A more effective EHR would serve as an electronic hub. Existing EHR infrastructure could provide the foundation upon which new technologies and approaches branch and extend, enabling more rapid and customizable innovation to better meet shifting stakeholder and end-user needs. Among many areas for improvement, key goals of innovation could include technology that relieves ambulatory primary care clinician documentation burden, identifies needs, and supports improved care coordination and outcomes, focused on the following key areas: identification of child and family care needs, decision support, documentation, care coordination, and family communication.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.cppeds.2021.101109

Alternate Title

Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care

PMID

34895836

Title

Promoting healthy childhood behaviors with financial incentives: A narrative review of key considerations and design features for future research.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 14

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p>In the last decade, there has been a robust increase in research using financial incentives to promote healthy behaviors as behavioral economics and new monitoring technologies have been applied to health behaviors. Most studies of financial incentives on health behaviors have focused on adults, yet many unhealthy adult behaviors have roots in childhood and adolescence. The use of financial incentives is an attractive but controversial strategy in childhood. In this review, we first propose five general considerations in designing and applying incentive interventions to children. These include: (1) the potential impact of incentives on intrinsic motivation, (2) ethical concerns about incentives promoting undue influence, (3) the importance of child neurodevelopmental stage, (4) how incentives interventions may influence health disparities, and (5) how to finance effective programs. We then highlight empirical findings from randomized trials investigating key design features of financial incentive interventions, including framing (loss versus gain), timing (immediate versus delayed), and magnitude (incentive size) effects on a range of childhood behaviors from healthy eating to adherence to glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. Though the current research base on these subjects in children is limited, we found no evidence suggesting that loss-framed incentives perform better than gain-framed incentives in children and isolated studies from healthy food choice experiments support the use of immediate, small incentives versus delayed, larger incentives. Future research on childhood incentives should compare the effectiveness of gain versus loss-framing and focus on which intervention characteristics lead to sustained behavior change and habit formation.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2021.08.010

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

34403802

Title

Rationale and protocol for a cluster randomized pragmatic clinical trial testing behavioral economic implementation strategies to improve tobacco treatment rates for cancer patients who smoke.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

72

Date Published

2021 Jul 15

ISSN Number

1748-5908

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Routine evidence-based tobacco use treatment minimizes cancer-specific and all-cause mortality, reduces treatment-related toxicity, and improves quality of life among patients receiving cancer care. Few cancer centers employ mechanisms to systematically refer patients to evidence-based tobacco cessation services. Implementation strategies informed by behavioral economics can increase tobacco use treatment engagement within oncology care.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A four-arm cluster-randomized pragmatic trial will be conducted across nine clinical sites within the Implementation Science Center in Cancer Control Implementation Lab to compare the effect of behavioral economic implementation strategies delivered through embedded messages (or "nudges") promoting patient engagement with the Tobacco Use Treatment Service (TUTS). Nudges are electronic medical record (EMR)-based messages delivered to patients, clinicians, or both, designed to counteract known patient and clinician biases that reduce treatment engagement. We used rapid cycle approaches (RCA) informed by relevant stakeholder experiences to refine and optimize our implementation strategies and methods prior to trial initiation. Data will be obtained via the EMR, clinician survey, and semi-structured interviews with a subset of clinicians and patients. The primary measure of implementation is penetration, defined as the TUTS referral rate. Secondary outcome measures of implementation include patient treatment engagement (defined as the number of patients who receive FDA-approved medication or behavioral counseling), quit attempts, and abstinence rates. The semi-structured interviews, guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, will assess contextual factors and patient and clinician experiences with the nudges.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>This study will be the first in the oncology setting to compare the effectiveness of nudges to clinicians and patients, both head-to-head and in combination, as implementation strategies to improve TUTS referral and engagement. We expect the study to (1) yield insights into the effectiveness of nudges as an implementation strategy to improve uptake of evidence-based tobacco use treatment within cancer care, and (2) advance our understanding of the multilevel contextual factors that drive response to these strategies. These results will lay the foundation for how patients with cancer who smoke are best engaged in tobacco use treatment and may lead to future research focused on scaling this approach across diverse centers.</p>

<p><strong>TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT04737031 . Registered 3 February 2021.</p>

DOI

10.1186/s13012-021-01139-7

Alternate Title

Implement Sci

PMID

34266468

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