First name
Andrew
Middle name
J
Last name
Bauer

Title

Health-Related Quality of Life at Diagnosis for Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patients.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

e169-e177

Date Published

04/2023

ISSN Number

1945-7197

Abstract

CONTEXT: Pediatric thyroid cancer (TC) incidence rates are increasing, yet TC has one of the highest survival rates. Despite increased prevalence, little is known about youth adjustment to TC, particularly compared to other pediatric cancers.

OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pediatric TC patients early after diagnosis compared to other pediatric cancer patients and healthy youth and examine predictors of HRQoL.

METHODS: Pediatric TC patients (ages 8.5-23.4 years) and their caregivers from a pediatric thyroid center completed psychosocial questionnaires as part of a clinic-based screening program around time of surgery. TC HRQoL was compared to other pediatric cancer and healthy youth reported norms. Clinical and demographic data extracted from the medical record were examined for predictors of HRQoL. The main outcome measures included the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and Distress Thermometer.

RESULTS: Findings evidenced significantly higher HRQoL for TC patients than other pediatric cancers for all but emotional and school functioning. Compared to healthy youth, TC patients reported significantly lower functioning, except comparable social functioning. No significant differences in HRQoL were identified based on disease severity, thyroid disease history, or treatment. Patient distress was associated with HRQoL.

CONCLUSION: The findings suggest general resilience in TC patients compared to youth with other cancers, yet worse HRQoL than peers. Early universal screening is warranted due to a short TC treatment regimen. If administrative barriers preclude comprehensive screening, the single-item Distress Thermometer may identify patients for further comprehensive screening.

DOI

10.1210/clinem/dgac648

Alternate Title

J Clin Endocrinol Metab

PMID

36330655
Featured Publication
No

Title

Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Pediatric Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Subtypes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1353-1361

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1557-9077

Abstract

Follicular patterned thyroid nodules with nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) encompass a range of diagnostic categories with varying risks of metastatic behavior. Subtypes include the invasive encapsulated follicular variant of PTC (Ienc-fvPTC) and infiltrative fvPTC (inf-fvPTC), with tumors lacking invasive features classified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like features (NIFTPs). This study aimed to report the clinical and histological features of pediatric cases meeting criteria for these histological subtypes, with specific focus on Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC. In this retrospective cohort study, pediatric patients with thyroid neoplasms showing follicular patterned growth and nuclear features of PTC noted on surgical pathology between January 2010 and January 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to the recent 2022 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Clinical and histopathologic parameters were described for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC subtypes, with specific comparison of Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC cases. The case cohort included 42 pediatric patients, with 6 (14%), 25 (60%), and 11 (26%) patients meeting criteria for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC, respectively. All cases were rereviewed, and 5 patients originally diagnosed with Ienc-fvPTC before 2017 were reappraised as having NIFTPs. The NIFTP cases were encapsulated tumors without invasive features, lymph node or distant metastasis, or disease recurrence. Ienc-fvPTC tumors demonstrated clearly demarcated tumor capsules and capsular/vascular invasion, while inf-fvPTC tumors displayed infiltrative growth lacking a capsule. inf-fvPTC cases had increased prevalence of malignant preoperative cytology, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis ( < 0.01). These cases were treated with total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection, and subsequent radioactive iodine therapy. Preliminary genetic findings suggest a predominance of fusions in inf-fvPTC cases versus point mutations in Ienc-fvPTC ( = 0.02). Pediatric NIFTP and fvPTC subtypes appear to demonstrate alignment between clinical and histological risk stratification, with indolent behavior in Ienc-fvPTC and invasive features in inf-fvPTC tumors.

DOI

10.1089/thy.2022.0239

Alternate Title

Thyroid

PMID

36103376

Title

Health-Related Quality of Life at Diagnosis for Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patients.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1945-7197

Abstract

CONTEXT: Pediatric thyroid cancer (TC) incidence rates are increasing, yet TC has one of the highest survival rates. Despite increased prevalence, little is known about youth adjustment to TC, particularly compared to other pediatric cancers.

OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in pediatric TC patients early after diagnosis compared to other pediatric cancer patients and healthy youth and examine predictors of HRQoL.

DESIGN: Patients completed psychosocial questionnaires as part of a clinic-based screening program around time of surgery. TC HRQoL was compared to other pediatric cancer and healthy youth reported norms. Clinical and demographic data extracted from the medical record were examined for predictors of HRQoL.

SETTING: Pediatric Thyroid Center.

PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Pediatric TC patients (ages 8.5-23.4 years) and their caregivers.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (HRQoL) and distress thermometer.

RESULTS: Findings evidenced significantly higher HRQoL for TC patients than other pediatric cancers for all but emotional and school functioning. Compared to healthy youth, TC patients reported significantly lower functioning, except comparable social functioning. No significant differences in HRQoL were identified based on disease severity, thyroid disease history, or treatment. Patient distress was associated with HRQoL.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest general resilience in TC patients compared to youth with other cancers, yet worse HRQoL than peers. Early universal screening is warranted due to a short TC treatment regimen. If administrative barriers preclude comprehensive screening, the single-item distress thermometer may identify patients for further comprehensive screening.

DOI

10.1210/clinem/dgac648

Alternate Title

J Clin Endocrinol Metab

PMID

36330655

Title

Indeterminate Thyroid Fine-Needle Aspirations in Pediatrics: Exploring the Clinicopathologic Features and Utility of Molecular Profiling.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1663-2826

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic utility of molecular profiling for the evaluation of indeterminate pediatric thyroid nodules is unclear. We aimed to assess pediatric cases with indeterminate thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) alongside clinicopathologic features and mutational analysis.

METHODS: A retrospective review of 126 patients with indeterminate cytology who underwent FNA between January 2010 and December 2021 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was performed. Indeterminate cases defined by The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (AUS/FLUS or TBSRTC III; FN/SFN or TBSRTC IV; SM or TBSRTC V) were correlated to clinicopathologic and genetic characteristics.

RESULTS: Of the 114 surgical cases, 48% were malignant, with the majority of malignant cases diagnosed as follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (28/55). Risk of malignancy increased with TBSRTC category: 23% for AUS/FLUS, 51% for FN/SFN, and 100% for SM nodules. There were significant differences in surgical approach (p < 0.01), performance of lymph node dissection (p < 0.01), histological diagnosis (p < 0.01), primary tumor focality/laterality (p = 0.04), and lymphatic invasion (p = 0.02) based on TBSRTC classification, with resultant differences in post-surgical risk stratification per American Thyroid Association (ATA) pediatric guidelines (p = 0.01). Approximately 89% (49/55) of cases were classified as ATA low-risk, and 5 of 6 patients with ATA intermediate- or high-risk disease had SM cytology. Somatic molecular testing was performed in 40% (51/126) of tumors; 77% (27/35) of malignant cases and 38% (6/16) of benign cases harbored driver alteration(s). Of the driver-positive malignant cases, 52% (14/27) were associated with low-risk (DICER1, PTEN, RAS, and TSHR mutations), 33% (9/27) were associated with high-risk (BRAF mutations and ALK, NTRK, and RET fusions), and 15% (4/27) had unreported risk for invasive disease (APC, BLM, and PPM1D mutations and TG-FGFR1 fusion). Incidence of high-risk drivers increased with TBSRTC category. Approximately 23% (8/35) of patients harboring thyroid malignancy did not have an identifiable driver alteration.

CONCLUSIONS: Molecular analysis is useful to discriminate benign and malignant thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology. Patients with driver genetic alteration(s) and indeterminate cytology should consider surgical management secondary to the high incidence (82%; 27/33) of thyroid malignancy in these patients.

DOI

10.1159/000526116

Alternate Title

Horm Res Paediatr

PMID

35871517

Title

Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Pediatric Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Subtypes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

09/2022

ISSN Number

1557-9077

Abstract

Follicular patterned thyroid nodules with nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma encompass a range of diagnostic categories with varying risks of metastatic behavior. Subtypes include invasive encapsulated fvPTC (Ienc-fvPTC) and infiltrative fvPTC (inf-fvPTC) with tumors lacking invasive features classified as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like features (NIFTP). This study aimed to report the clinical and histologic features of pediatric cases meeting criteria for these histological subtypes with specific focus on Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC. In this retrospective cohort study, pediatric patients with thyroid neoplasms showing follicular patterned growth and nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma noted on surgical pathology between January 2010 and January 2021 were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to the recent 2022 World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Clinical and histopathologic parameters were described for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC subtypes, with specific comparison of Ienc-fvPTC and inf-fvPTC cases. The case cohort included 42 pediatric patients, with 6 (14%), 25 (60%), and 11 (26%) patients meeting criteria for NIFTP, Ienc-fvPTC, and inf-fvPTC, respectively. All cases were re-reviewed, and 5 patients originally diagnosed with Ienc-fvPTC prior to 2017 were reappraised as NIFTP. The NIFTP cases were encapsulated tumors without invasive features, lymph node or distant metastasis, or disease recurrence. Ienc-fvPTC tumors demonstrated clearly demarcated tumor capsules and capsular/vascular invasion, while inf-fvPTC tumors displayed infiltrative growth lacking a capsule. Inf-fvPTC cases had increased prevalence of malignant pre-operative cytology, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis ( < 0.01). These cases were treated with total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection, and subsequent radioactive iodine therapy. Preliminary genetic findings suggest a predominance of fusions in inf-fvPTC cases versus point mutations in Ienc-fvPTC ( < 0.01). Pediatric NIFTP and fvPTC subtypes appear to demonstrate alignment between clinical and histological risk stratification, with indolent behavior in Ienc-fvPTC and invasive features in inf-fvPTC tumors.

DOI

10.1089/thy.2022.0239

Alternate Title

Thyroid

PMID

36103376

Title

Fusion Oncogenes Are Associated With Increased Metastatic Capacity and Persistent Disease in Pediatric Thyroid Cancers.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

JCO2101861

Date Published

2022 Jan 11

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>In 2014, data from a comprehensive multiplatform analysis of 496 adult papillary thyroid cancer samples reported by The Cancer Genome Atlas project suggested that reclassification of thyroid cancer into molecular subtypes, -like and -like, better reflects clinical behavior than sole reliance on pathologic classification. The aim of this study was to categorize the common oncogenic variants in pediatric differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and investigate whether mutation subtype classification correlated with the risk of metastasis and response to initial therapy in pediatric DTC.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Somatic cancer gene panel analysis was completed on DTC from 131 pediatric patients. DTC were categorized into -mutant (), -mutant ( p.V600E), and / fusion (, , and fusions) to determine differences between subtype classification in regard to pathologic data (American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM) as well as response to therapy 1 year after initial treatment had been completed.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Mutation-based subtype categories were significant in most variables, including age at diagnosis, metastatic behavior, and the likelihood of remission at 1 year. Patients with / fusions were significantly more likely to have advanced lymph node and distant metastasis and less likely to achieve remission at 1 year than patients within or -mut subgroups.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Our data support that genetic subtyping of pediatric DTC more accurately reflects clinical behavior than sole reliance on pathologic classification with patients with / fusions having worse outcomes than those with -mutant disease. Future trials should consider inclusion of molecular subtype into risk stratification.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.21.01861

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

35015563

Title

Clinical Course of Early Postoperative Hypothyroidism Following Thyroid Lobectomy in Pediatrics.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 29

ISSN Number

1557-9077

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Thyroid lobectomy reduces risks of surgical complications and need for levothyroxine (LT4). We aimed to identify the clinical course and risk factors for post-lobectomy hypothyroidism to optimize surgical counseling and management in pediatric patients undergoing lobectomy.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Clinical and biochemical presentations pre- and post-lobectomy were retrospectively reviewed for 110 patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy between 2008 and 2020 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Approximately 28.2% of patients (31/110) developed post-lobectomy hypothyroidism defined by an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, including 24.5% (27/110) with subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH &gt; 4.5 and &lt; 10.0 mIU/L) and 3.6% (4/110) with overt hypothyroidism (TSH &gt; 10.0 mIU/L). LT4 was initiated in 12.7% (14/110) of cases. Most patients (81.6%; 84/103) recovered euthyroidism within 12 months post-lobectomy. When excluding patients with autonomous nodule(s), median preoperative TSH was 1.09 (IQR = 0.70-1.77) mIU/L and 1.80 (IQR = 1.02-2.68) mIU/L in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients, respectively, with multivariate logistic regression confirming the association between an increased preoperative TSH and post-lobectomy hypothyroidism (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.08-3.13; p = 0.024). Of the patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy and developed post-operative hypothyroidism (n = 31), 38.7% (12/31) had a pre-operative diagnosis of an autonomous thyroid nodule.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Thyroid function should be evaluated post-lobectomy to assess the need for LT4. LT4 should be considered if the TSH remains elevated, especially if an upward trend is observed or TSH is &gt; 10.0 mIU/L. Suppressed preoperative TSH associated with autonomous nodule(s) is an independent risk factor for post-lobectomy hypothyroidism.</p>

DOI

10.1089/thy.2021.0396

Alternate Title

Thyroid

PMID

34714171

Title

Thyroid Lobectomy for T1 Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Pediatric Patients.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Sep 23

ISSN Number

2168-619X

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>The current recommendation for pediatric patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is a total thyroidectomy. This recommendation applies to all stages of PTC, including papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (≤1 cm, T1a) tumors.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To evaluate the characteristics of American Joint Committee on Cancer T1 PTC tumors in a large pediatric population and to identify a subgroup of patients who may benefit from a thyroid lobectomy instead of a total thyroidectomy.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This retrospective cohort study was conducted from January 1, 2009, to May 31, 2020. The study took place at a tertiary care medical center and included 102 patients who were surgically treated for T1 PTC: 52 with stage T1a (≤1 cm) tumors and 50 with stage T1b (&gt;1 cm but ≤2 cm) tumors.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Primary outcomes included the presence of bilateral disease and lymph node metastasis.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 102 patients (mean age, 15.3 years [range, 9.7-18.9 years]; 84 girls [82.4%]) were included in the analysis. Among 52 patients with T1a tumors, 10 (19.2%) had bilateral disease, and 15 (28.8%) had central neck lymph node (N1a) metastasis. Among 50 patients with T1b tumors, 10 (20%) had bilateral and 13 (26%) had N1a disease. Of those with T1a, unilateral multifocality was associated with bilateral disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4) and N1a disease (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 1.5-17.6). Both N1a disease (OR, 20.0; 95% CI, 3.5-115.0) and ≥4 positive lymph nodes (OR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.2-60.9) were associated with bilateral disease. In patients with no pathologic evidence of lymph node metastasis (N0), there was a 95% rate of unilateral PTC. In patients with T1b tumors, unilateral multifocality was also associated with bilateral disease (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7). Patients with T1b tumors had an increased risk of lateral (N1b) neck lymph node metastasis when compared with those with T1a tumors (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.0-14.5).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>The findings of this cohort study suggest that, in patients with unifocal T1a PTC without clinically evident nodal disease on preoperative ultrasonography, a thyroid lobectomy and central neck dissection may be considered. If there is no evidence of unilateral multifocality or if there are fewer than 4 positive lymph nodes on postoperative pathology, then close observation may be considered. These findings have substantial clinical implications and may result in practice changes regarding the extent of thyroid surgery on low-stage pediatric PTC.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamaoto.2021.2359

Alternate Title

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg

PMID

34554217

Title

Bilateral papillary thyroid cancer in children: Risk factors and frequency of postoperative diagnosis.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Feb 27

ISSN Number

1531-5037

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The recommendation for children with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is total thyroidectomy (TT) based on the incidence of bilateral disease. Evaluating this assumption, we reviewed the characteristics of bilateral PTC in a large cohort of children.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A retrospective chart review for patients surgically treated for PTC from 2009 to 2018 analyzing preoperative risk factors, ultrasound findings, and pathology results was performed. Bilateral disease was defined as pathologic PTC in the contralateral lobe, including microscopic disease.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of the 172 patients included, 38.4% had bilateral disease with 23% diagnosed postoperatively. Multifocal disease on ultrasound was associated with bilateral disease (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.5-5.9, p = 0.002). Nodule dimension &gt;2 cm was associated with increased risk for postoperative bilateral disease (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.4, p = 0.001). Patients with bilateral disease were more likely to have extrathyroidal extension, lymphovascular invasion, positive central lymph nodes, and extranodal extension (p &lt; 0.001 for all). Diffuse-sclerosing variant PTC was also associated with bilateral disease.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Thirty-eight percent of children were diagnosed with PTC demonstrate bilateral disease. Nearly one in four have occult bilateral disease. The features that predicted bilateral disease were multifocality, widely invasive PTC on ultrasound, and the presence of lymphadenopathy. Thus, TT is the appropriate surgical approach for pediatric patients with PTC.</p>

<p><strong>TYPE OF STUDY: </strong>Clinical Research, Retrospective Review.</p>

<p><strong>LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: </strong>Level IV.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.02.040

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr. Surg.

PMID

32171533

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