First name
Philip
Middle name
T
Last name
Thrush

Title

The impact of pre-implant illness severity on the outcomes of pediatric patients undergoing durable ventricular assist device.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Feb 24

ISSN Number

1557-3117

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Durable ventricular assist devices (VADs) are increasingly used to treat children with heart failure. Studies demonstrate worse outcomes for those in cardiogenic shock at the time of VAD, but limited data exist on less acutely ill children. We describe the association between illness severity and outcomes in this population.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Data were analyzed from 373 children (aged &lt;19 years) receiving durable VADs from 46 centers in the Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support. Outcomes were compared by Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) Patient Profile (PP) and pre-implant characteristics using competing risks methodology.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Analyses identified 97 patients in cardiogenic shock (PP 1), 222 with progressive decline (PP 2), and 42 stable on inotropes (PP 3). There were 39 infants, 124 were aged 1 to 9 years and 210 were aged 10 to 19 years. A majority had cardiomyopathy and 66 had congenital heart disease (CHD). There were 224 (62%) continuous-flow VADs. Before implant, 40% received mechanical ventilation (MV). Within 6 months post-implant, 57% underwent transplant and 14% died. PP 1 mortality was highest (25% vs 10% for PP 2, hazard ratio [HR]: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.4, p = 0.02). In PP 1, CHD was an independent mortality risk factor (HR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.1-7.8, p = 0.03). In PP 2, pulsatile VADs were associated with death (HR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.6-9.5, p = 0.003). Patients on MV had high mortality (20%-30%) across PP 1 to PP 3 (HR: 3.0 vs no MV, p &lt; 0.001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Children in shock at the time of VAD implant have poor outcomes. MV is associated with increased mortality even in lower acuity INTERMACS profiles. Further study is needed to identify modifiable risk factors in this population.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.healun.2020.02.011

Alternate Title

J. Heart Lung Transplant.

PMID

32165048

Title

Pediatric Cardiomyopathies.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

855-873

Date Published

2017 Sep 15

ISSN Number

1524-4571

Abstract

<p>Pediatric cardiomyopathies are rare diseases with an annual incidence of 1.1 to 1.5 per 100 000. Dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are the most common; restrictive, noncompaction, and mixed cardiomyopathies occur infrequently; and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is rare. Pediatric cardiomyopathies can result from coronary artery abnormalities, tachyarrhythmias, exposure to infection or toxins, or secondary to other underlying disorders. Increasingly, the importance of genetic mutations in the pathogenesis of isolated or syndromic pediatric cardiomyopathies is becoming apparent. Pediatric cardiomyopathies often occur in the absence of comorbidities, such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, renal dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus; as a result, they offer insights into the primary pathogenesis of myocardial dysfunction. Large international registries have characterized the epidemiology, cause, and outcomes of pediatric cardiomyopathies. Although adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies have similar morphological and clinical manifestations, their outcomes differ significantly. Within 2 years of presentation, normalization of function occurs in 20% of children with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 40% die or undergo transplantation. Infants with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a 2-year mortality of 30%, whereas death is rare in older children. Sudden death is rare. Molecular evidence indicates that gene expression differs between adult and pediatric cardiomyopathies, suggesting that treatment response may differ as well. Clinical trials to support evidence-based treatments and the development of disease-specific therapies for pediatric cardiomyopathies are in their infancy. This compendium summarizes current knowledge of the genetic and molecular origins, clinical course, and outcomes of the most common phenotypic presentations of pediatric cardiomyopathies and highlights key areas where additional research is required.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: </strong>URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifiers: NCT02549664 and NCT01912534.</p>

DOI

10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309386

Alternate Title

Circ. Res.

PMID

28912187

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