First name
Maria
Middle name
N
Last name
Tsolia

Title

Potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator on clinical management of neonates with presumed sepsis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 18

ISSN Number

1432-1076

Abstract

<p>To assess the potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente early-onset sepsis calculator (EOS-C), in terms of antibiotic use and requested laboratory tests, in a network of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Greece, and to determine the incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Greek NICUs, a prospective surveillance study was conducted in 7 NICUs between April 2018 and June 2019. Data were collected for all newborns ≥ 34&nbsp;weeks' gestation receiving empiric antibiotic therapy within the first 3&nbsp;days of life. The number of live births and positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid cultures within the first 3&nbsp;days of life were used for calculation of EOS incidence. Evaluation of possible impact of implementing the calculator was done by comparing the clinicians' recorded management to the calculator's suggested course of action. The unit-specific incidence of culture-proven EOS ranged between 0 and 2.99/1000 live births. The weighted incidence rate for all 7 units was 1.8/1000 live births. Management of EOS guided by the calculator could lead to a reduction of empiric antibiotic initiation up to 100% for the group of "well-appearing" neonates and 86% for "equivocal," lowering exposure to antibiotics by 4.2 and 3.8&nbsp;days per neonate, respectively. Laboratory tests for blood cultures drawn could be reduced by up to 100% and 68%, respectively. Sensitivity of the EOS-C in identifying neonates with positive blood cultures was high.Conclusion: Management strategies based on the Kaiser Permanente neonatal sepsis calculator may significantly reduce antibiotic exposure, invasive diagnostic procedures, and hospitalizations in late preterm and term neonates. What is Known: • Neonates are frequently exposed to antibiotics for presumed EOS. • The Kaiser Permanente sepsis calculator can reduce antibiotic exposure in neonates.. What is New: • EOS calculator can be an effective antibiotic stewardship tool in a high prescribing country and can reduce invasive diagnostic procedures and mother-baby separation. • Incidence of EOS in Greece is higher compared to other European countries.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00431-021-04282-x

Alternate Title

Eur J Pediatr

PMID

34664107

Title

Reducing Duration of Antibiotic Use for Presumed Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis in Greek NICUs. A "Low-Hanging Fruit" Approach.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 09

ISSN Number

2079-6382

Abstract

Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU), where stewardship interventions are challenging. Lowering antibiotic consumption is desperately needed in Greece, a country with high antibiotic resistance rates. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a low-cost and -resource intervention to reduce antibiotic use in Greek NICUs implementing a "low-hanging fruit" approach. A prospective quasi-experimental study was conducted in 15/17 public NICUs in Greece (9/2016-06/2019). The intervention selected was discontinuation of antibiotics within 5 days for neonates with gestational age ≥ 37 weeks, no documented signs or symptoms of sepsis, CRP ≤ 10 mg/L and negative cultures within 3 days of antibiotic initiation. Impact was evaluated by the percentage of discontinued regimens by day 5, length of therapy (LOT) and stay. Trends of antibiotic consumption were assessed with days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient-days. Overall, there was a 9% increase ( = 0.003) of antibiotic discontinuation in ≤5 days. In total, 7/13 (53.8%) units showed a ≥10% increase. Overall, 615 days on antibiotics per 1000 patients were saved. Interrupted time-series analysis established a declining trend in DOT/1000 patient-days relative to the pre-intervention trend ( = 0.002); a monthly decrease rate of 28.96 DOT/1000 patient-days ( = 0.001, 95%CI [-45.33, -12.60]). The intervention had no impact on antibiotic choice. Antibiotic use was successfully reduced in Greek NICUs using a "low-hanging fruit" approach. In resource-limited settings, similar targeted stewardship interventions can be applied.

DOI

10.3390/antibiotics10030275

Alternate Title

Antibiotics (Basel)

Title

Immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on methotrexate treatment: a matched case-control study.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

711-715

Date Published

2017 Jul-Aug

ISSN Number

0392-856X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To describe the immunogenicity and side effects of immunisation against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in JIA patients on methotrexate treatment, who have not been previously exposed to HAV.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Case-control study performed in JIA patients and healthy controls matched on age and gender. The subjects received two doses of inactivated anti-HAV vaccine (720 mIU/ml) intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Seroconversion, seroprotection rates and anti-HAV-IgG titres were measured at 1, 7 and 18 months. Children were monitored for adverse events.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>83 JIA patients and 76 controls were enrolled in the study. At one month, seroprotection rates were lower in children with, as compared to those without JIA (48.2% vs. 65%; p=0.05). At 7 and 18 months, rates of seroprotection rose significantly and were similar in both groups. The titre of anti-HAV-IgG was lower in children with JIA than healthy children at all time points (p&lt;0.001). Vaccines were well tolerated.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Two doses of inactivated HAV vaccine were well tolerated and immunogenic in most immunosuppressed children with JIA; however, a single dose of HAV vaccine was insufficient to induce seroprotection in half of the patients. Further studies are required to analyse the long-term immunity against HAV in this population and optimal HAV immunisation regimen.</p>

Alternate Title

Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.

PMID

28721859

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