First name
Matthew
Middle name
P
Last name
Kronman

Title

Developing Consensus on Clinical Outcomes for Children with Mild Pneumonia: A Delphi Study.

Year of Publication

2023

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The absence of consensus for outcomes in pediatric antibiotic trials is a major barrier to research harmonization and clinical translation. We sought to develop expert consensus on study outcomes for clinical trials of children with mild community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

METHODS: Applying the Delphi method, a multispecialty expert panel ranked the importance of various components of clinical response and treatment failure outcomes in children with mild CAP for use in research. During Round 1, panelists suggested additional outcomes in open-ended responses that were added to subsequent rounds of consensus building. For Rounds 2 and 3, panelists were provided their own prior responses and summary statistics for each item in the previous round. The consensus was defined by >70% agreement.

RESULTS: The expert panel determined that response to and failure of treatment should be addressed at a median of 3 days after initiation. Complete or substantial improvement in fever, work of breathing, dyspnea, tachypnea when afebrile, oral intake, and activity should be included as components of adequate clinical response outcomes. Clinical signs and symptoms including persistent or worsening fever, work of breathing, and reduced oral intake should be included in treatment failure outcomes. Interventions including receipt of parenteral fluids, supplemental oxygen, need for high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, and change in prescription of antibiotics should also be considered in treatment failure outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinical response and treatment failure outcomes determined by the consensus of this multidisciplinary expert panel can be used for pediatric CAP studies to provide objective data translatable to clinical practice.

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piac123

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

36625856

Title

Fidelity evaluation of the dialogue around respiratory illness treatment (DART) program communication training.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 14

ISSN Number

1873-5134

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To evaluate receipt fidelity of communication training content included in a multifaceted intervention known to reduce antibiotic over-prescribing for pediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs), by examining the degree to which clinicians implemented the intended communication behavior changes.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Parents were surveyed regarding clinician communication behaviors immediately after attending 1026 visits by children 6 months to &lt;&nbsp;11 years old diagnosed with ARTIs by 53 clinicians in 18 pediatric practices. Communication outcomes analyzed were whether clinicians: (A) provided both a combined (negative + positive) treatment recommendation and a contingency plan (full implementation); (B) provided either a combined treatment recommendation or a contingency plan (partial implementation); or (C) provided neither (no implementation). We used mixed effects multinomial logistic regression to determine whether these 3 communication outcomes changed between baseline and the time periods following each of 3 training modules.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>After completing the communication training, the adjusted probability of clinicians fully implementing the intended communication behavior changes increased by an absolute 8.1% compared to baseline (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 2.4%, 13.8%, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.005).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Our findings support the receipt fidelity of the intervention's communication training content.</p>

<p><strong>PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: </strong>Clinicians can be trained to implement communication behaviors that may aid in reducing antibiotic over-prescribing for ARTIs.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.pec.2022.03.011

Alternate Title

Patient Educ Couns

PMID

35341612

Title

Clinical Practice Guideline by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2021 Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Pediatrics.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 05

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>This clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) in children was developed by a multidisciplinary panel representing Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). This guideline is intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children with AHO, including specialists in pediatric infectious diseases, orthopedics, emergency care physicians, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for these patients. The panel's recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of AHO are based upon evidence derived from topic-specific systematic literature reviews. Summarized below are the recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of AHO in children. The panel followed a systematic process used in the development of other IDSA and PIDS clinical practice guidelines, which included a standardized methodology for rating the certainty of the evidence and strength of recommendation using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. A detailed description of background, methods, evidence summary and rationale that support each recommendation, and knowledge gaps can be found online in the full text.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab027

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34350458

Title

Inappropriate antibiotic surgical prophylaxis in pediatric patients: A national point-prevalence study.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

477-479

Date Published

2020 04

ISSN Number

1559-6834

DOI

10.1017/ice.2020.28

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

32127068

Title

Reducing Antibiotic Prescribing in Primary Care for Respiratory Illness.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 03

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>One-third of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions for pediatric acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are inappropriate. We evaluated a distance learning program's effectiveness for reducing outpatient antibiotic prescribing for ARTI visits.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this stepped-wedge clinical trial run from November 2015 to June 2018, we randomly assigned 19 pediatric practices belonging to the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network or the NorthShore University HealthSystem to 4 wedges. Visits for acute otitis media, bronchitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory infection for children 6 months to &lt;11 years old without recent antibiotic use were included. Clinicians received the intervention as 3 program modules containing online tutorials and webinars on evidence-based communication strategies and antibiotic prescribing, booster video vignettes, and individualized antibiotic prescribing feedback reports over 11 months. The primary outcome was overall antibiotic prescribing rates for all ARTI visits. Mixed-effects logistic regression compared prescribing rates during each program module and a postintervention period to a baseline control period. Odds ratios were converted to adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) for interpretability.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 72 723 ARTI visits by 29 762 patients, intention-to-treat analyses revealed a 7% decrease in the probability of antibiotic prescribing for ARTI overall between the baseline and postintervention periods (aRR 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.96). Second-line antibiotic prescribing decreased for streptococcal pharyngitis (aRR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.50-0.87) and sinusitis (aRR 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.77) but not for acute otitis media (aRR 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83-1.03). Any antibiotic prescribing decreased for viral ARTIs (aRR 0.60; 95% CI, 0.51-0.70).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>This program reduced antibiotic prescribing during outpatient ARTI visits; broader dissemination may be beneficial.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-0038

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

32747473

Title

The current state of antifungal stewardship among pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

1-6

Date Published

2020 Jul 14

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To characterize the current state of antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions of antifungal use among pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs).</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>We developed and distributed an electronic survey, which included 17 closed-ended questions about institutional antifungal stewardship practices and perceptions, among pediatric ASPs.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS: </strong>ASP physicians and pharmacists of 74 hospitals participating in the multicenter Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) Collaborative.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We sent surveys to 74 hospitals and received 68 unique responses, for a response rate of 92%. Overall, 63 of 68 the respondent ASPs (93%) reported that they conduct 1 or more antifungal stewardship activities. Of these 68 hospital ASPs, 43 (63%) perform prospective audit and feedback (PAF) of antifungals. The most common reasons reported for not performing PAF of antifungals were not enough time or resources (19 of 25, 76%) and minimal institutional antifungal use (6 of 25, 24%). Also, 52 hospitals (76%) require preauthorization for 1 or more antifungal agents. The most commonly restricted antifungals were isavuconazole (42 of 52 hospitals, 80%) and posaconazole (39 of 52 hospitals, 75%). Furthermore, 33 ASPs (48%) agreed or strongly agreed that antifungals are inappropriately used at their institution, and only 25 of 68 (37%) of ASPs felt very confident making recommendations about antifungals.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Most pediatric ASPs steward antifungals, but the strategies employed are highly variable across surveyed institutions. Although nearly half of respondents identified inappropriate antifungal use as a problem at their institution, most ASPs do not feel confident making recommendations about antifungals. Future studies are needed to determine the rate of inappropriate antifungal use and the best antifungal stewardship strategies.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2020.306

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

32662383

Title

Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescribing in U.S. Children's Hospitals: A National Point Prevalence Survey.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jan 16

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Studies estimate that 30-50% of antibiotics prescribed for hospitalized patients are inappropriate, but pediatric data are limited. Characterization of inappropriate prescribing practices for children are needed to guide pediatric antimicrobial stewardship.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cross-sectional analysis of antibiotic prescribing at 32 US children's hospitals. Subjects included hospitalized children with ≥1 antibiotic order at 0800 on one day per calendar quarter, over six quarters (Quarter 3 2016 - Quarter 4 2017). Antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) physicians and/or pharmacists used a standardized survey to collect data on antibiotic orders and evaluate appropriateness. The primary outcome was the percentage of antibiotics prescribed for infectious use that were classified as suboptimal, defined as inappropriate or needing modification.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 34 927 children hospitalized on survey days, 12 213 (35.0%) had ≥1 active antibiotic order. Among 11 784 patients receiving antibiotics for infectious use, 25.9% were prescribed ≥1 suboptimal antibiotic. Of the 17 110 antibiotic orders prescribed for infectious use, 21.0% were considered suboptimal. Most common reasons for inappropriate use were bug-drug mismatch (27.7%), surgical prophylaxis &gt;24 hours (17.7%), overly broad empiric therapy (11.2%), and unnecessary treatment (11.0%). The majority of recommended modifications were to stop (44.7%) or narrow (19.7%) the drug. ASPs would not have routinely reviewed 46.1% of suboptimal orders.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Across 32 children's hospitals, approximately 1 in 3 hospitalized children are receiving one or more antibiotics at any given time. One quarter of these children are receiving suboptimal therapy, and nearly half of suboptimal use is not captured by current ASP practices.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciaa036

Alternate Title

Clin. Infect. Dis.

PMID

31942952

Title

Getting Over Our Inpatient Oral Antibiotic Aversion.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Dec

ISSN Number

1098-4275

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-1634

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

30510032

Title

Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus infections in patients admitted to freestanding pediatric hospitals, 2009-2016.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

1-4

Date Published

2018 Oct 29

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2018.259

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

30370879

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