First name
Cindy
Middle name
L
Last name
Schwartz

Title

BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination Against COVID-19 is Associated with Decreased Likelihood of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in U.S. Children Ages 5-18 Years.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood.

METHODS: In a multicenter case-control public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from July 1, 2021 to April 7, 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (aOR, 0.16 95% CI, 0.10-0.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.10-0.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR, 0.10 95% CI, 0.05-0.19), and during the Delta (aOR, 0.06 95% CI, 0.02-0.15) and Omicron (aOR, 0.22 95% CI, 0.11-0.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR, 0.08, 95% CI, 0.03-0.22) in 12-18 year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible patients were unvaccinated.

CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination with two doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac637

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35924406

Title

Late health outcomes after dexrazoxane treatment: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 13

ISSN Number

1097-0142

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The objective of this study was to examine long-term outcomes among children newly diagnosed with cancer who were treated in dexrazoxane-containing clinical trials.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>P9404 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma [ALL]), P9425 and P9426 (Hodgkin lymphoma), P9754 (osteosarcoma), and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 95-01 (ALL) enrolled 1308 patients between 1996 and 2001: 1066 were randomized (1:1) to doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane, and 242 (from P9754) were nonrandomly assigned to receive dexrazoxane. Trial data were linked with the National Death Index, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), and Medicaid. Osteosarcoma survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS; n&nbsp;=&nbsp;495; no dexrazoxane) served as comparators in subanalyses. Follow-up events were assessed with cumulative incidence, Cox regression, and Fine-Gray methods.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In randomized trials (cumulative prescribed doxorubicin dose, 100-360&nbsp;mg/m ; median follow-up, 18.6&nbsp;years), dexrazoxane was not associated with relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.13), second cancers (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.62-2.30), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.78-1.47), or cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.41-5.16). Among P9754 patients (all exposed to dexrazoxane; cumulative doxorubicin, 450-600&nbsp;mg/m ; median follow-up, 16.6-18.4&nbsp;years), no cardiovascular deaths or heart transplantation occurred. The 20-year heart transplantation rate among CCSS osteosarcoma survivors (mean doxorubicin, 377&nbsp;±&nbsp;145&nbsp;mg/m ) was 1.6% (vs 0% in P9754; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.13). Among randomized patients, serious cardiovascular outcomes (cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) ascertained by PHIS/Medicaid occurred less commonly with dexrazoxane (5.6%) than without it (17.6%; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.02), although cardiomyopathy rates alone did not differ (4.4% vs 8.1%; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.35).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Dexrazoxane did not appear to adversely affect long-term mortality, event-free survival, or second cancer risk.</p>

DOI

10.1002/cncr.33974

Alternate Title

Cancer

PMID

34644414

Title

Multisite external validation of a risk prediction model for the diagnosis of blood stream infections in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 May 23

ISSN Number

1097-0142

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Pediatric oncology patients are at an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection due to immunosuppression. The risk of such infection in the absence of severe neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count ≥ 500/μL) is not well established and a validated prediction model for blood stream infection (BSI) risk offers clinical usefulness.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A 6-site retrospective external validation was conducted using a previously published risk prediction model for BSI in febrile pediatric oncology patients without severe neutropenia: the Esbenshade/Vanderbilt (EsVan) model. A reduced model (EsVan2) excluding 2 less clinically reliable variables also was created using the initial EsVan model derivative cohort, and was validated using all 5 external validation cohorts. One data set was used only in sensitivity analyses due to missing some variables.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>From the 5 primary data sets, there were a total of 1197 febrile episodes and 76 episodes of bacteremia. The overall C statistic for predicting bacteremia was 0.695, with a calibration slope of 0.50 for the original model and a calibration slope of 1.0 when recalibration was applied to the model. The model performed better in predicting high-risk bacteremia (gram-negative or Staphylococcus aureus infection) versus BSI alone, with a C statistic of 0.801 and a calibration slope of 0.65. The EsVan2 model outperformed the EsVan model across data sets with a C statistic of 0.733 for predicting BSI and a C statistic of 0.841 for high-risk BSI.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The results of this external validation demonstrated that the EsVan and EsVan2 models are able to predict BSI across multiple performance sites and, once validated and implemented prospectively, could assist in decision making in clinical practice. Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.</p>

DOI

10.1002/cncr.30792

Alternate Title

Cancer

PMID

28542918

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