First name
Gregory
Middle name
E
Last name
Tasian

Title

Ureteral Stent Placement Prior to Definitive Stone Treatment Is Associated With Higher Postoperative Emergency Department Visits and Opioid Prescriptions for Youth Having Ureteroscopy or Shock Wave Lithotripsy.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

1194-1201

Date Published

06/2023

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

PURPOSE: Little is known about the impact of ureteral stents on youth having stone surgery. We evaluated the association of ureteral stent placement before or concurrent with ureteroscopy and shock wave lithotripsy with emergency department visits and opioid prescriptions among pediatric patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals aged 0-24 years who underwent ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy from 2009-2021 at 6 hospitals in PEDSnet, a research network that aggregates electronic health record data from children's health systems in the United States. The exposure, primary ureteral stent placement, was defined as a stent placed concurrent with or within 60 days before ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy. Associations between primary stent placement and stone-related ED visits and opioid prescriptions within 120 days of the index procedure were evaluated with mixed-effects Poisson regression.

RESULTS: Two-thousand ninety-three patients (60% female; median age 15 years, IQR 11-17) had 2,477 surgical episodes; 2,144 were ureteroscopy and 333 were shock wave lithotripsy. Primary stents were placed in 1,698 (79%) ureteroscopy episodes and 33 (10%) shock wave lithotripsy episodes. Ureteral stents were associated with a 33% higher rate of emergency department visits (IRR 1.33; 95% CI 1.02-1.73) and a 30% higher rate of opioid prescriptions (IRR 1.30; 95% CI 1.10-1.53). The magnitudes of both associations were greater for shock wave lithotripsy. Results were similar for age <18 and were lost when restricted to concurrent stent placement.

CONCLUSIONS: Primary ureteral stent placement was associated with more frequent emergency department visits and opioid prescriptions, driven by pre-stenting. These results support elucidating situations where stents are not necessary for youth with nephrolithiasis.

DOI

10.1097/JU.0000000000003389

Alternate Title

J Urol

PMID

36812398
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Title

Deep Learning of Videourodynamics to Classify Bladder Dysfunction Severity in Patients With Spina Bifida.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

994-1003

Date Published

05/2023

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

PURPOSE: Urologists rely heavily on videourodynamics to identify patients with neurogenic bladders who are at risk of upper tract injury, but their interpretation has high interobserver variability. Our objective was to develop deep learning models of videourodynamics studies to categorize severity of bladder dysfunction.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients aged 2 months to 28 years with spina bifida who underwent videourodynamics at a single institution between 2019 and 2021. The outcome was degree of bladder dysfunction, defined as none/mild, moderate, and severe, defined by a panel of 5 expert reviewers. Reviewers considered factors that increase the risk of upper tract injury, such as poor compliance, elevated detrusor leak point pressure, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, in determining bladder dysfunction severity. We built 4 models to predict severity of bladder dysfunction: (1) a random forest clinical model using prospectively collected clinical data from videourodynamics studies, (2) a deep learning convolutional neural network of raw data from the volume-pressure recordings, (3) a deep learning imaging model of fluoroscopic images, (4) an ensemble model averaging the risk probabilities of the volume-pressure and fluoroscopic models.

RESULTS: Among 306 videourodynamics studies, the accuracy and weighted kappa of the ensemble model classification of bladder dysfunction when at least 75% expected bladder capacity was reached were 70% (95% CI 66%,76%) and 0.54 (moderate agreement), respectively. The performance of the clinical model built from data extracted by pediatric urologists was the poorest with an accuracy of 61% (55%, 66%) and a weighted kappa of 0.37.

CONCLUSIONS: Our models built from urodynamic pressure-volume tracings and fluoroscopic images were able to automatically classify bladder dysfunction with moderately high accuracy.

DOI

10.1097/JU.0000000000003267

Alternate Title

J Urol

PMID

36787376
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Title

Ureteral Stent Placement Prior to Definitive Stone Treatment Is Associated With Higher Postoperative Emergency Department Visits and Opioid Prescriptions for Youth Having Ureteroscopy or Shock Wave Lithotripsy.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

101097JU0000000000003389

Date Published

02/2023

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

PURPOSE: Little is known about the impact of ureteral stents on youth having stone surgery. We evaluated the association of ureteral stent placement before or concurrent with ureteroscopy and shock wave lithotripsy with emergency department visits and opioid prescriptions among pediatric patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals aged 0-24 years who underwent ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy from 2009-2021 at 6 hospitals in PEDSnet, a research network that aggregates electronic health record data from children's health systems in the United States. The exposure, primary ureteral stent placement, was defined as a stent placed concurrent with or within 60 days before ureteroscopy or shock wave lithotripsy. Associations between primary stent placement and stone-related ED visits and opioid prescriptions within 120 days of the index procedure were evaluated with mixed-effects Poisson regression.

RESULTS: Two-thousand ninety-three patients (60% female; median age 15 years, IQR 11-17) had 2,477 surgical episodes; 2,144 were ureteroscopy and 333 were shock wave lithotripsy. Primary stents were placed in 1,698 (79%) ureteroscopy episodes and 33 (10%) shock wave lithotripsy episodes. Ureteral stents were associated with a 33% higher rate of emergency department visits (IRR 1.33; 95% CI 1.02-1.73) and a 30% higher rate of opioid prescriptions (IRR 1.30; 95% CI 1.10-1.53). The magnitudes of both associations were greater for shock wave lithotripsy. Results were similar for age <18 and were lost when restricted to concurrent stent placement.

CONCLUSIONS: Primary ureteral stent placement was associated with more frequent emergency department visits and opioid prescriptions, driven by pre-stenting. These results support elucidating situations where stents are not necessary for youth with nephrolithiasis.

DOI

10.1097/JU.0000000000003389

Alternate Title

J Urol

PMID

36812398
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Featured Publication
No
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Title

Deep Learning of Videourodynamics to Classify Bladder Dysfunction Severity in Patients With Spina Bifida.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

994-1003

Date Published

05/2023

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

PURPOSE: Urologists rely heavily on videourodynamics to identify patients with neurogenic bladders who are at risk of upper tract injury, but their interpretation has high interobserver variability. Our objective was to develop deep learning models of videourodynamics studies to categorize severity of bladder dysfunction.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients aged 2 months to 28 years with spina bifida who underwent videourodynamics at a single institution between 2019 and 2021. The outcome was degree of bladder dysfunction, defined as none/mild, moderate, and severe, defined by a panel of 5 expert reviewers. Reviewers considered factors that increase the risk of upper tract injury, such as poor compliance, elevated detrusor leak point pressure, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, in determining bladder dysfunction severity. We built 4 models to predict severity of bladder dysfunction: (1) a random forest clinical model using prospectively collected clinical data from videourodynamics studies, (2) a deep learning convolutional neural network of raw data from the volume-pressure recordings, (3) a deep learning imaging model of fluoroscopic images, (4) an ensemble model averaging the risk probabilities of the volume-pressure and fluoroscopic models.

RESULTS: Among 306 videourodynamics studies, the accuracy and weighted kappa of the ensemble model classification of bladder dysfunction when at least 75% expected bladder capacity was reached were 70% (95% CI 66%,76%) and 0.54 (moderate agreement), respectively. The performance of the clinical model built from data extracted by pediatric urologists was the poorest with an accuracy of 61% (55%, 66%) and a weighted kappa of 0.37.

CONCLUSIONS: Our models built from urodynamic pressure-volume tracings and fluoroscopic images were able to automatically classify bladder dysfunction with moderately high accuracy.

DOI

10.1097/JU.0000000000003267

Alternate Title

J Urol

PMID

36787376
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Title

The Patient Voice - Stent Experiences after Ureteroscopy: Insights from In-Depth Interviews with Participants in the USDRN STENTS Nested Qualitative Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

Date Published

04/2023

ISSN Number

1557-900X

Abstract

PURPOSE: Ureteral stents are commonly used after ureteroscopy and cause significant discomfort, yet qualitative perspectives on patients' stent experiences remain unknown. We describe psychological, functional, and interpersonal effects of post-ureteroscopy stents and whether additional patient-reported assessments may be needed.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a qualitative descriptive study design, we conducted in-depth interviews with a nested cohort of participants in the STudy to Enhance uNderstanding of sTent-associated Symptoms. Participants shared their symptoms with a post-ureteroscopy stent and described symptom bother and impact on daily activities. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using applied thematic analysis. During analysis, participants' experiences with interference in daily activities were categorized into three groups based on their impact: minimal, moderate, and substantial.

RESULTS: All 39 participants experienced pain, although descriptions varied and differentiated between feelings of pain versus discomfort. Almost all experienced urinary symptoms. Only a few reported other physical symptoms, although several psychological aspects were identified. In the areas of sleep, mood, life enjoyment, work, exercise, activities of daily living, driving, childcare, and leisure/social activities, the stent had little impact on daily living among participants placed in the minimal group (n=12) and far greater impact for participants in the substantial group (n=8). For patients in the moderate group (n=19), some daily activities were moderately or substantially affected, while other activities were minimally affected.

CONCLUSIONS: Counseling to better prepare patients for the impact of stent-associated symptoms may help mitigate symptom burden. While existing instruments adequately cover most symptoms, additional assessments for other domains, particularly psychological factors, may be needed.

DOI

10.1089/end.2022.0810

Alternate Title

J Endourol

PMID

37021358
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Title

Primary ablation versus urinary diversion in posterior urethral valve: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

Date Published

02/2023

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine differences in long-term kidney and bladder outcomes in boys with posterior urethral valves (PUV) managed by a primary valve ablation or primary urinary diversion.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was performed in March 2021. Comparative studies were evaluated according to Cochrane collaboration recommendations. Assessed measures included kidney outcomes (chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, kidney function) and bladder outcomes. Odds ratios (OR) and mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were extrapolated from available data for quantitative synthesis. Random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed according to study design, and potential covariates were assessed with subgroup analysis. The systematic review was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021243967).

RESULTS: Thirty unique studies describing 1547 boys with PUV were included in this synthesis. Overall effect estimates demonstrate that patients undergoing primary diversion have significantly increased odds of developing renal insufficiency [OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44, 0.80; p < 0.001]. However, when adjusting for baseline kidney function between intervention groups, there was no significant difference in long term kidney outcomes [p = 0.09, 0.35], or the development of bladder dysfunction or requiring clean-intermittent catheterization with primary ablation rather than diversion [OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.49, 1.59; p = 0.68].

CONCLUSIONS: Current low-quality evidence suggests that medium-term kidney outcomes in children are similar between primary ablation and primary diversion after adjusting for baseline kidney function, while bladder outcomes are highly heterogenous. Further research with covariate control is warranted to investigate sources of heterogeneity.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2023.02.008

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

36906479
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No
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Title

Deep Learning of Videourodynamics to Classify Bladder Dysfunction Severity in Patients with Spina Bifida.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

101097JU0000000000003267

Date Published

02/2023

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

PURPOSE: Urologists rely heavily on videourodynamics (VUDS) to identify patients with neurogenic bladders who are at risk of upper tract injury, but their interpretation has high interobserver variability. Our objective was to develop deep learning models of VUDS studies to categorize severity of bladder dysfunction.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients aged 2 months to 28 years with spina bifida who underwent VUDS at a single institution between 2019 and 2021. The outcome was degree of bladder dysfunction, defined as none/mild, moderate, and severe, defined by a panel of 5 expert reviewers. Reviewers considered factors that increase the risk of upper tract injury, such as poor compliance, elevated detrusor leak point pressure, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, in determining bladder dysfunction severity. We built 4 models to predict severity of bladder dysfunction: 1) a random forest clinical model using prospectively collected clinical data from VUDS studies; 2) deep learning convolutional neural network of raw data from the volume-pressure recordings; 3) deep learning imaging model of fluoroscopic images; 4) ensemble model averaging the risk probabilities of the volume-pressure and fluoroscopic models.

RESULTS: Among 306 VUDS studies, the accuracy and weighted kappa of the ensemble model classification of bladder dysfunction when at least 75% expected bladder capacity was reached were 70% (95% CI 66%,76%) and 0.54 (moderate agreement), respectively. The performance of the clinical model built from data extracted by pediatric urologists was the poorest with an accuracy of 61% (55%, 66%) and a weighted kappa of 0.37.

CONCLUSIONS: Our models built from urodynamic pressure-volume tracings and fluoroscopic images were able to automatically classify bladder dysfunction with moderately high accuracy.

DOI

10.1097/JU.0000000000003267

Alternate Title

J Urol

PMID

36787376
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Title

Risk Factors for Increased Stent-Associated Symptoms Following Ureteroscopy for Urinary Stones: Results from STENTS.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

101097JU0000000000003183

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

1527-3792

Abstract

PURPOSE: The STudy to Enhance uNderstanding of sTent-associated Symptoms (STENTS) sought to identify risk factors for pain and urinary symptoms, as well as how these symptoms interfere with daily activities after ureteroscopy for stone treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study enrolled patients aged ≥12 years undergoing ureteroscopy with ureteral stent for stone treatment at 4 clinical centers. Participants reported symptoms at baseline; on postoperative days (POD) 1, 3, 5; at stent removal; and day 30 post-stent removal. Outcomes of pain intensity, pain interference, urinary symptoms, and bother were captured with multiple instruments. Multivariable analyses using mixed-effects linear regression models were identified characteristics associated with increased stent-associated symptoms (SAS).

RESULTS: A total of 424 participants were enrolled. Mean age was 49 years (SD 17); 47% were female. Participants experienced a marked increase in SAS on POD 1. While pain intensity decreased ∼50% from POD 1 to POD 5, interference due to pain remained persistently elevated. In multivariable analysis, older age was associated with lower pain intensity(p=0.004). Having chronic pain conditions(p<0.001), prior severe stent pain(p=0.021), and depressive symptoms at baseline(p<0.001) were each associated with higher pain intensity. Neither sex, stone location, ureteral access sheath use, nor stent characteristics were drivers of SAS.

CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter cohort, interference persisted even as pain intensity decreased. Patient factors (e.g., age, depression) rather than surgical factors were associated with symptom intensity. These findings provide a foundation for patient-centered care and highlight potential targets for efforts to mitigate the burden of SAS.

DOI

10.1097/JU.0000000000003183

Alternate Title

J Urol

PMID

36648152
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Title

Comparative effectiveness of high-power holmium laser lithotripsy for pediatric patients with kidney and ureteral stones.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

463.e1-463.e8

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1873-4898

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The comparative effectiveness of high-power laser technology for kidney stone surgery in pediatric patients is poorly understood. We compared outcomes for the 120 W Holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser with MOSES technology to 30 W Ho:YAG laser for pediatric patients undergoing ureteroscopy with laser lithotripsy for kidney and ureteral stones.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the outcomes of the new MOSES laser technology as compared to low-power Ho:YAG lasers commonly used for kidney stone treatment in the pediatric population.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 131 consecutive patients aged 1-18 years who underwent ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy for renal and ureteric calculi at a large freestanding children's hospital between 2013 and 2020. The primary outcome was the efficiency quotient, which incorporates stone clearance, auxiliary procedures, and retreatment rates. Outcomes were compared between groups using Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests and multivariable regression. A sensitivity analysis was performed extending the age limit to ≤21 years.

RESULTS: Outcomes are summarized in the table below. Median age of the cohort was 14 years with 53% of patients being female. MOSES laser had a higher efficiency quotient and was associated with a lower odds of post-operative emergency department visits (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.0-1.0; p = 0.047). Operative time was similar. In the sensitivity analysis of patients ≤21 years, the statistical significance with fewer emergency department visits was lost and the efficiency quotient was lower.

DISCUSSION: Our results show that stone clearance is similar between the 120 W MOSES and 30 W Ho:YAG lasers. However, there are indications that high-power laser lithotripsy is more efficient due to fewer auxiliary procedures and a reduction in retreatment. In addition, higher power lasers were associated with fewer emergency department visits. The benefits appear to be greater among children ≤18 years. These exploratory findings are important for pediatric patients due to the requirement for general anesthesia for each procedure and their associated impact on children and their caregivers.

CONCLUSIONS: High-power laser lithotripsy may be more efficient than lower power laser lithotripsy, which is driven by the fewer auxiliary procedures and reduction in retreatment particularly among youth ≤18 years old.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpurol.2022.05.022

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol

PMID

35715329
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