First name
Christopher
Middle name
S
Last name
Almond

Title

Significant mortality, morbidity and resource utilization associated with advanced heart failure in congenital heart disease in children and young adults.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

9-19

Date Published

2018 Dec 05

ISSN Number

1097-6744

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for advanced heart failure (AHF). We sought to define the mortality and resource utilization in CHD-related AHF in children and young adults.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>All hospitalizations in the Pediatric Health Information System database involving patients ≤21 years old with a CHD diagnosis and heart failure requiring at least 7 days of continuous inotropic support between 2004 and 2015 were included. Hospitalizations including CHD surgery were excluded.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 465,482 CHD hospitalizations, AHF was present in 2,712 (0.6%) [58% infant, 55% male, 30% single ventricle]. AHF therapies frequently used included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (15%) and cardiac transplant (16%). Ventricular assist device (VAD) support was rare (3%), although VAD use significantly increased from 2004 to 2015 (P &lt; .0010). Hospital mortality in CHD with AHF was 26%, with higher mortality associated with single ventricle heart disease (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23-2.19; P = .0009), infancy (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.5; P = .0057), non-white race (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.59; p=0.0234), and chronic complex comorbidities (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.34-2.30; P &lt; .0001). Over the 11-year study period, despite the significant increase in CHD-related AHF hospitalizations (P &lt; .0001), hospital mortality improved (P = .0011). Median hospital costs were $252,000, a 6-fold increase above those without AHF, and was primarily driven by hospital length of stay (P &lt; .0001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>AHF in children with CHD in uncommon but increasing and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. Approximately 1 in 5 children do not survive to hospital discharge. Many risk factors for mortality may not be modifiable, and further study is needed to identify modifiable risk factors and improve care for this complex population.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.ahj.2018.11.010

Alternate Title

Am. Heart J.

PMID

30639612

Title

Outcomes of children implanted with ventricular assist devices in the United States: First analysis of the Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (PediMACS).

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

578-84

Date Published

2016 May

ISSN Number

1557-3117

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Use of mechanical circulatory support in children has increased as more options have become available. A national account of the use of mechanical support in children and adolescents is essential to understanding outcomes, refining patient selection and improving quality of care.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (PediMACS) is a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-supported nationwide registry for temporary and durable ventricular assist device (VAD) use in patients &lt;19 years of age. Between the launch in September 2012 and June 2015, 37 hospitals in the USA have enrolled patients. This first report of data from PediMACS analyzed pre-implant patient characteristics, survival using competing outcomes, and adverse events.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Two hundred pediatric patients underwent 222 durable VAD implants. Patients' characteristics and outcomes of children supported with a temporary device (n = 41) were not analyzed in this report. The etiology of heart disease included 146 (73%) patients with cardiomyopathy and 35 (18%) with congenital heart disease. Thirty patients (15%) transitioned from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and 76 (38%) had previous cardiac surgery. Most patients were Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) Level 1 (27%) or Level 2 (56%) at implant, with 13% at Level 3. Of the 200 patients supported with a durable device, 91 (46%) were supported with a pulsatile-flow device and 109 (55%) with a continuous-flow (CF) device. Patient age at first implant included 30 patients (15%) &lt;1 year of age, 37 (19%) 1 to 5 years, 32 (16%) 6 to 10 years and 101 (51%) 10 to 18 years. Patients were supported with left ventricular assist device alone in 161 (81%), biventricular ventricular assist device in 29 (15%), right ventricular assist device in 4 (2.0%) and total artificial heart in 6 (3%), together comprising 783 months of follow-up. The 200 patients receiving primary durable devices had an actuarial survival of 81% at 6 months. Competing risk analysis at 6 months revealed that 58% of patients had been transplanted, 28% were alive on support, 14% had died and 0.6% recovered. In the overall cohort, there were 28 deaths. Reported serious adverse events included infection (n = 78), bleeding (n = 68), device malfunction (n = 79) and neurologic dysfunction (n = 52).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>PediMACS constitutes the largest single data repository with detailed information of pediatric patients implanted with VADs. The first PediMACS report reveals favorable outcomes despite the varying patient characteristics and pump types. However, the rate of adverse events remains high. With further data collection, analysis of patient risk factors critical to improving outcomes will be possible.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.healun.2016.01.1227

Alternate Title

J. Heart Lung Transplant.

PMID

27009673

Title

Haemodynamic profiles of children with end-stage heart failure.

Year of Publication

2017

Number of Pages

2900-2909

Date Published

2017 Oct 07

ISSN Number

1522-9645

Abstract

<p><strong>Aims: </strong>To evaluate associations between haemodynamic profiles and symptoms, end-organ function and outcome in children listed for heart transplantation.</p>

<p><strong>Methods and results: </strong>Children &lt;18 years listed for heart transplant between 1993 and 2013 with cardiac catheterization data [pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), right atrial pressure (RAP), and cardiac index (CI)] in the Pediatric Heart Transplant Study database were included. Outcomes were New York Heart Association (NYHA)/Ross classification, renal and hepatic dysfunction, and death or clinical deterioration while on waitlist. Among 1059 children analysed, median age was 6.9 years and 46% had dilated cardiomyopathy. Overall, 58% had congestion (PCWP &gt;15 mmHg), 28% had severe congestion (PCWP &gt;22 mmHg), and 22% low cardiac output (CI &lt; 2.2 L/min/m2). Twenty-one per cent met the primary outcome of death (9%) or clinical deterioration (12%). In multivariable analysis, worse NYHA/Ross classification was associated with increased PCWP [odds ratio (OR) 1.03, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.01-1.07, P = 0.01], renal dysfunction with increased RAP (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, P = 0.007), and hepatic dysfunction with both increased PCWP (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06, P &lt; 0.001) and increased RAP (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.06-1.12, P &lt; 0.001). There were no associations with low output. Death or clinical deterioration was associated with severe congestion (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.2, P = 0.002), but not with CI alone. However, children with both low output and severe congestion were at highest risk (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.5, P = 0.03).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Congestion is more common than low cardiac output in children with end-stage heart failure and correlates with NYHA/Ross classification and end-organ dysfunction. Children with both congestion and low output have the highest risk of death or clinical deterioration.</p>

DOI

10.1093/eurheartj/ehx456

Alternate Title

Eur. Heart J.

PMID

29019615

Title

Clinical practice patterns are relatively uniform between pediatric heart transplant centers: A survey-based assessment.

Year of Publication

2017

Date Published

2017 Jul 03

ISSN Number

1399-3046

Abstract

<p>Clinical practice variations are a barrier to the study of pediatric heart transplants and coordination of multicenter RCTs in this patient population. We surveyed centers to describe practice patterns, understand areas of variation, and willingness to modify protocol. Pediatric heart transplant centers were identified, and one survey was completed per center. Simple descriptive statistics were used. The response rate was 77% (40 responses from 52 contacted centers, 37 with complete responses). Median center volume of respondents was eight transplants/year (IQR 3-19). Most centers reported tacrolimus (36/38, 95%) and mycophenolate mofetil (36/38, 95%) as maintenance immunosuppression. Other immunosuppression agents reported were cyclosporine (7/38, 18%), everolimus or sirolimus (3/38, 8%), and azathioprine (2/38, 5%). Overall, respondents answered similarly for questions regarding clinical practices including induction therapy, maintenance immunosuppression, and rejection treatment threshold (&gt;85% agreement for all). Additionally, willingness to change clinical practices was over 70% for all practices surveyed (35 total respondents), and 97% of centers (36/37) were willing to participate in a RCT of maintenance immunosuppression. In conclusion, we found many similar clinical practice protocols. Most centers are willing to collaborate on a common protocol in order to participate in a RCT and support a trial investigating maintenance immunosuppression.</p>

DOI

10.1111/petr.13013

Alternate Title

Pediatr Transplant

PMID

28670871

Title

Development and validation of a major adverse transplant event (MATE) score to predict late graft loss in pediatric heart transplantation.

Year of Publication

2018

Number of Pages

441-450

Date Published

2018 Apr

ISSN Number

1557-3117

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>There is inadequate power to perform a valid clinical trial in pediatric heart transplantation (HT) using a conventional end-point, because the disease is rare and hard end-points, such as death or graft loss, are infrequent. We sought to develop and validate a surrogate end-point involving the cumulative burden of post-transplant complications to predict death/graft loss to power a randomized clinical trial of maintenance immunosuppression in pediatric HT.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Pediatric Heart Transplant Study (PHTS) data were used to identify all children who underwent an isolated orthotopic HT between 2005 and 2014 who survived to 6 months post-HT. A time-varying Cox model was used to develop and evaluate a surrogate end-point comprised of 6 major adverse transplant events (MATEs) (acute cellular rejection [ACR], antibody-mediated rejection [AMR], infection, cardiac allograft vasculopathy [CAV], post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease [PTLD] and chronic kidney disease [CKD]) occurring between 6 and 36 months, where individual events were defined according to international guidelines. Two thirds of the study cohort was used for score development, and one third of the cohort was used to test the score.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 2,118 children, 6.4% underwent graft loss between 6 and 36 months post-HT, whereas 39% developed CKD, 34% ACR, 34% infection, 9% AMR, 4% CAV and 2% PTLD. The best predictive score involved a simple MATE score sum, yielding a concordance probability estimate (CPE) statistic of 0.74. Whereas the power to detect non-inferiority (NI), assuming the NI hazard ratio of 1.45 in graft survival was 10% (assuming 200 subjects and 6% graft loss rate), the power to detect NI assuming a 2-point non-inferiority margin was &gt;85% using the MATE score.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>The MATE score reflects the cumulative burden of MATEs and has acceptable prediction characteristics for death/graft loss post-HT. The MATE score may be useful as a surrogate end-point to power a clinical trial in pediatric HT.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.healun.2017.03.013

PMID

28465118

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