First name
Sara
Middle name
B
Last name
DeMauro

Title

Incidence of and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes After Late-Onset Meningitis Among Children Born Extremely Preterm.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e2245826

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Late-onset meningitis (LOM) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born extremely preterm.

OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of LOM during birth hospitalization and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 to 26 months' corrected age.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study is a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective cohort of children born at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation between 2003 and 2017 with follow-up from 2004 to 2021. The study was conducted at 25 Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers.

EXPOSURES: Culture-confirmed LOM.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incidence and microbiology of LOM (2003-2017); lumbar puncture (LP) performance in late-onset sepsis (LOS) evaluations (2011-2017); composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI; 2004-2021).

RESULTS: Among 13 372 infants (median [IQR] gestational age, 25.4 [24.4-26.1] weeks; 6864 [51%] boys), LOM was diagnosed in 167 (1%); LOS without LOM in 4564 (34%); and neither LOS nor LOM in 8641 (65%). The observed incidence of LOM decreased from 2% (95% CI, 1%-3%) in 2003 to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.0%) in 2017 (P < .001). LP performance in LOS evaluations decreased from 36% (95% CI, 33%-40%) in 2011 to 24% (95% CI, 21%-27%) in 2017 (P < .001). Among infants with culture-confirmed LOS, LP performance decreased from 58% (95% CI, 51%-65%) to 45% (95% CI, 38%-51%; P = .008). LP performance varied by center among all LOS evaluations (10%-59%, P < .001) and among those with culture-confirmed LOS (23%-79%, P < .001). LOM occurred in the absence of concurrent LOS in 27 of 167 cases (16%). The most common LOM isolates were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (98 [59%]), Candida albicans (38 [23%]), and Escherichia coli (27 [16%]). Death or NDI occurred in 22 of 46 children (48%) with LOM due to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 43 of 67 (64%) due to all other bacterial pathogens, and 26 of 33 (79%) due to fungal pathogens. The adjusted relative risk of death or NDI was increased among children with LOM (aOR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.04-2.25) and among those with LOS without LOM (aOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.29-1.54) compared with children with neither infection.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, LP was performed with decreasing frequency, and the observed incidence of LOM also decreased. Both LOM and LOS were associated with increased risk of death or NDI; risk varied by LOM pathogen. The full association of LOM with outcomes of children born extremely preterm may be underestimated by current diagnostic practices.

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.45826

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

36480199

Title

Group B Streptococcus Infection in Extremely Preterm Neonates and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1405-1415

Date Published

10/2022

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the incidence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease among extremely preterm infants and assess to risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at a corrected age of 18-26 months.

METHODS: In this observational cohort study of infants enrolled in a multicenter registry, the incidence of GBS disease was assessed in infants born in 1998-2016 at 22-28 weeks' gestation and surviving for >12 hours. The composite outcome, death or NDI, was assessed in infants born in 1998-2014 at 22-26 weeks' gestation. Infection was defined as GBS isolation in blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture at ≤72 hours (early-onset disease [EOD]) or >72 hours (late-onset disease [LOD]) after birth. Using Poisson regression models, the outcome was compared in infants with GBS disease, infants infected with other pathogens, and uninfected infants.

RESULTS: The incidence of GBS EOD (2.70/1000 births [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.15-3.36]) and LOD (8.47/1000 infants [7.45-9.59]) did not change significantly over time. The adjusted relative risk of death/NDI was higher among infants with GBS EOD than in those with other infections (adjusted relative risk, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.02-1.45]) and uninfected infants (1.44 [1.23-1.69]). Risk of death/NDI did not differ between infants with GBS LOD and comparator groups. GBS LOD occurred at a significantly later age than non-GBS late-onset infection. Among infants surviving >30 days, the risk of death was higher with GBS LOD (adjusted relative risk, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.36-2.67]), compared with uninfected infants.

CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of extremely preterm infants, the incidence of GBS disease did not change during the study period. The increased risk of death or NDI with GBS EOD, and of death among some infants with GBS LOD, supports the need for novel preventive strategies for disease reduction.

CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00063063.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac222

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35323895

Title

Alarm Burden in Infants With Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Monitored With Pulse Oximetry at Home.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e2218367

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

2574-3805

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.18367

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

35737392

Title

Improving Blood Pressure Screening in Neonatal Follow-up Clinic: A Quality Improvement Initiative.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e559

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

2472-0054

Abstract

Introduction: The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends blood pressure screening at every health care encounter in children younger than 3 years if they have a history of prematurity or other neonatal complications requiring intensive care because these children have an increased risk for hypertension.

Methods: A multidisciplinary team conducted a quality improvement initiative to improve blood pressure screening at a single-center outpatient neonatal follow-up clinic. We developed a focused intervention program including a standardized blood pressure measurement protocol, staff training and education, and streamlined documentation. We conducted two Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles from November 2019 to January 2021. The outcome measure was the percentage of patients with a blood pressure measurement. Process measures included the percentage of medical assistants educated on the new protocol, percentage of patients 3 years, and younger old with the first blood pressure measurement taken from the right arm, and the percentage of patients 1 year and younger with 3 documented blood pressures. The balancing measure was staff satisfaction with time to obtain vital signs. We used statistical process control charts and Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

Results: At baseline, only 15.3% of patients had documented blood pressure. During the 10-month intervention period, there were 954 patient visits. Overall, blood pressure measurement increased to 54.7% with study interventions. The balancing measure was not negatively impacted.

Conclusions: After implementing a program of focused interventions, we substantially improved the frequency of blood pressure measurements and increased adherence to American Academy of Pediatrics screening guidelines. Improved blood pressure screening allows us to identify and evaluate at-risk infants after hospital discharge.

DOI

10.1097/pq9.0000000000000559

Alternate Title

Pediatr Qual Saf

PMID

35720869

Title

Impact of Early-Onset Sepsis and Antibiotic Use on Death or Survival with Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 2 Years of Age among Extremely Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

39-46.e5

Date Published

2020 Jun

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that early-onset sepsis increases risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among preterm infants; and that among infants without early-onset sepsis, prolonged early antibiotics alters risk of death/NDI.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of infants born at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers (2006-2014) at 22-26 weeks of gestation and birth weight 401-1000 g. Early-onset sepsis defined as growth of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture ≤72 hours after birth. Prolonged early antibiotics was defined as antibiotics initiated ≤72 hours and continued ≥5 days without culture-confirmed infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, or spontaneous perforation. Primary outcome was death before follow-up or NDI assessed at 18-26 months corrected age. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and CI for early-onset sepsis outcomes. A propensity score for receiving prolonged antibiotics was derived from early clinical factors and used to match infants (1:1) with and without prolonged antibiotic exposure. Log binomial models were used to estimate aRR for outcomes in matched infants.

RESULTS: Among 6565 infants, those with early-onset sepsis had higher aRR (95% CI) for death/NDI compared with infants managed with prolonged antibiotics (1.18 [1.06-1.32]) and to infants without prolonged antibiotics (1.23 [1.10-1.37]). Propensity score matching was achieved for 4362 infants. No significant difference in death/NDI (1.04 [0.98-1.11]) was observed with or without prolonged antibiotics among the matched cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset sepsis was associated with increased risk of death/NDI among extremely preterm infants. Among matched infants without culture-confirmed infection, prolonged early antibiotic administration was not associated with death/NDI.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.038

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

32446491

Title

Parental Insights into Improving Home Pulse Oximetry Monitoring in Infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e538

Date Published

2022 Mar-Apr

ISSN Number

2472-0054

Abstract

<p>Home pulse oximeters prescribed for infants with cardiorespiratory conditions generate many false alarms, which create caregiver stress and sleep disturbance and can lead to unsafe practices. Additionally, relationships among oximeters, alarms, and everyday living demands are not well understood. Therefore, we aimed to gather parent perspectives on home pulse oximetry monitoring during the problem analysis phase of a quality improvement (QI) initiative.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>We purposively sampled and interviewed parents of infants prescribed home pulse oximeters and receiving local home care company services. We based questions on systems engineering frameworks previously used in healthcare. Data were coded iteratively and analyzed deductively (theoretical frameworks) and inductively (emerging themes).</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Generally, themes aligned with theoretical frameworks. Parents expressed dissatisfaction with the number of false alarms home pulse oximeters generate, which parents primarily attributed to poor probe adhesiveness and the inability of oximeters to account for infant movement. Interviews highlighted the burden associated with poor device tones and portability. Device-related issues had negative repercussions for the entire family related to sleep quality, mobility, and social interactions. Universally, parents developed workarounds, including cessation of monitoring.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Parents of infants monitored at home using pulse oximetry face many challenges, resulting in compromises in safety. Continuing to instruct parents to comply with prescribed monitoring recommendations may be unrealistic. Instead, we suggest re-engineering the home monitoring system with the needs and goals of children and their families at the center. Our description of adapting qualitative research and systems engineering methods may benefit others developing QI work.</p>

DOI

10.1097/pq9.0000000000000538

Alternate Title

Pediatr Qual Saf

PMID

35369408

Title

Group B Streptococcal Infection in Extremely Preterm Neonates and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 22

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Determine the incidence of GBS disease among extremely preterm infants and assess risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-26 months' corrected age.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Observational cohort study of infants enrolled in a multicenter registry. GBS disease incidence was assessed in infants born 1998-2016 at 22-28 weeks' gestation surviving &gt;12 hours. The composite outcome, death or NDI, was assessed in infants born 1998-2014 at 22-26 weeks' gestation. Infection was defined as GBS isolation in blood/CSF culture at ≤72 hours (early-onset disease, EOD) and &gt;72 hours (late-onset disease, LOD) after birth. The outcome was compared in infants with GBS disease, infants infected with other pathogens, and uninfected infants using Poisson regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Incidence of GBS EOD (2.70/1000 births [95% CI: 2.15-3.36]) and LOD (8.47/1000 infants [7.45-9.59]) did not change significantly over time. The adjusted relative risk (aRR, 95% CI) of death/NDI was higher among GBS EOD cases compared to infants with other infections (1.22, [1.02-1.45]) and uninfected infants (1.44, [1.23-1.69]). Death/NDI did not differ between infants with GBS LOD and comparator groups. GBS LOD occurred at a significantly later age than non-GBS late-onset infection. Among infants surviving &gt;30 days, the risk of death was higher with GBS LOD (1.90, [1.36-2.67]), compared to uninfected infants.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In a cohort of extremely preterm infants, incidence of GBS disease did not change during the study period. Increased risk of death/NDI with GBS EOD, and of death among some infants with GBS LOD, supports the need for novel preventive strategies for disease reduction.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac222

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35323895

Title

Early motor development in infants with moderate or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 12

ISSN Number

1878-4429

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Timely development of early motor skills is essential for later skill development in multiple domains. Infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have significant risk for developmental delays. Early motor skill development in this population has not been described. The aim of the present study was to characterize motor skill acquisition at 3 and 6 months corrected age (CA) and assess trajectories of skill development over this time period in infants with severe BPD.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a single-center, retrospective descriptive study. Motor skills were categorized as present and normal, present but atypical, or absent at 3 and 6 months CA. Logistic regression was used to identify clinical characteristics associated with negative trajectories of skill acquisition.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Data were available for 232 infants and 187 infants at 3 and 6 months CA, respectively. Ten motor skills were present and normal in 5-44%(range) of subjects at 3 months. Nineteen motor skills were present and normal in 1-63%(range) of subjects at 6 months. Significant postural asymmetry was noted throughout the study period. Loss of skills and worsening asymmetries over time were common. Exposure to sedating medications was significantly associated with poor development.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We report delays in motor skill acquisition and postural asymmetries in infants with severe BPD at both 3 and 6 months CA. The association between sedating medications and poor development suggests that efforts to limit these exposures may lead to improved development. Targeted interventions to facilitate early motor development may improve outcomes of this high-risk population.</p>

DOI

10.3233/NPM-210750

Alternate Title

J Neonatal Perinatal Med

PMID

34657851

Title

Home Pulse Oximetry after Discharge from a Quaternary-Care Children's Hospital: Prescriber Patterns and Perspectives.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 11

ISSN Number

1099-0496

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Pulse oximetry monitoring is prescribed to children receiving home oxygen for chronic medical conditions associated with hypoxemia. Although home pediatric pulse oximetry is supported by national organizations, there are a lack of guidelines outlining indications and prescribing parameters.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A mixed-methods analysis of pediatric home pulse oximetry orders prescribed through the institutional home health care provider at a large US children's hospital 6/2018-7/2019 were retrospectively reviewed to determine prescribed alarm parameter limits and recommended interventions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with pediatric providers managing patients receiving home oxygen and pulse oximetry were conducted to identify opportunities to improve home pulse oximetry prescribing practices. Interviews were analyzed using a modified content analysis approach to identify recurring themes.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>368 children received home pulse oximetry orders. Orders were most frequently prescribed on non-cardiac medical floors (32%). Attending physicians were the most frequent ordering providers (52%). Frequency of use was prescribed in 96% of orders, however just 70% were provided with specific instructions for interventions when alarms occurred. Provider role and clinical setting were significantly associated with the presence of a care plan. Provider interviews identified opportunities for improvement with the device, management of alarm parameter limits, and access to home monitor data.</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>This study demonstrated significant variability in home pulse oximetry prescribing practices. Provider interviews highlighted the importance of the provider-patient relationship and areas for improvement. There is an opportunity to create standardized guidelines that optimize the use of home monitoring devices for patients, families, and pulmonary providers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p>

DOI

10.1002/ppul.25722

Alternate Title

Pediatr Pulmonol

PMID

34633759

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