First name
Derek
Middle name
J
Last name
Williams

Title

Associations between comorbidity-related functional limitations and pneumonia outcomes.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

527-533

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Underlying comorbidities are common in children with pneumonia.

OBJECTIVE: To determine associations between comorbidity-related functional limitations and risk for severe pneumonia outcomes.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We prospectively enrolled children <18 years with and without comorbidities presenting to the emergency department with clinical and radiographic pneumonia at two institutions. Comorbidities included chronic conditions requiring daily medications, frequent healthcare visits, or which limited age-appropriate activities. Among children with comorbidities, functional limitations were defined as none or mild, moderate, and severe.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Outcomes included an ordinal severity outcome, categorized as very severe (mechanical ventilation, shock, or death), severe (intensive care without very severe features), moderate (hospitalization without severe features), or mild (discharged home), and length of stay (LOS). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to examine associations between comorbidity-related functional limitations and outcomes, while accounting for relevant covariates.

RESULTS: A cohort of 1116 children, including 452 (40.5%) with comorbidities; 200 (44.2%) had none or mild functional limitations, 93 (20.6%) moderate, and 159 (35.2%) had severe limitations. In multivariable analysis, comorbidity-related functional limitations were associated with the ordinal severity outcome and LOS (p < .001 for both). Children with severe functional limitations had tripling of the odds of a more severe ordinal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.01, 95% confidence interval [2.05, 4.43]) and quadrupling of the odds for longer LOS (aOR: 4.72 [3.33, 6.70]) as compared to children without comorbidities.

CONCLUSION: Comorbidity-related functional limitations are important predictors of disease outcomes in children with pneumonia. Consideration of functional limitations, rather than the presence of comorbidity alone, is critical when assessing risk of severe outcomes.

DOI

10.1002/jhm.12904

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

35761790

Title

A Prediction Model to Identify Febrile Infants ≤60 Days at Low Risk of Invasive Bacterial Infection.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jun 05

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To derive and internally validate a prediction model for the identification of febrile infants ≤60 days old at low probability of invasive bacterial infection (IBI).

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of febrile infants ≤60 days old who presented to the emergency departments of 11 hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Infants with IBI, defined by growth of a pathogen in blood (bacteremia) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (bacterial meningitis), were matched by hospital and date of visit to 2 control patients without IBI. Ill-appearing infants and those with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Predictors of IBI were identified with multiple logistic regression and internally validated with 10-fold cross-validation, and an IBI score was calculated.

RESULTS: We included 181 infants with IBI (155 [85.6%] with bacteremia without meningitis and 26 [14.4%] with bacterial meningitis) and 362 control patients. Twenty-three infants with IBI (12.7%) and 138 control patients (38.1%) had fever by history only. Four predictors of IBI were identified (area under the curve 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.86]) and incorporated into an IBI score: age <21 days (1 point), highest temperature recorded in the emergency department 38.0-38.4°C (2 points) or ≥38.5°C (4 points), absolute neutrophil count ≥5185 cells per μL (2 points), and abnormal urinalysis results (3 points). The sensitivity and specificity of a score ≥2 were 98.8% (95% CI: 95.7%-99.9%) and 31.3% (95% CI: 26.3%-36.6%), respectively. All 26 infants with meningitis had scores ≥2.

CONCLUSIONS: Infants ≤60 days old with fever by history only, a normal urinalysis result, and an absolute neutrophil count <5185 cells per μL have a low probability of IBI.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-3604

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31167938

Title

Association of clinical practice guidelines with emergency department management of febrile infants ≤56 days of age.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

358-65

Date Published

06/2015

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Differences among febrile infant institutional clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) may contribute to practice variation and increased healthcare costs.

OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between pediatric emergency department (ED) CPGs and laboratory testing, hospitalization, ceftriaxone use, and costs in febrile infants.

DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study in 2013.

SETTING: Thirty-three hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System.

PATIENTS: Infants aged ≤56 days with a diagnosis of fever.

EXPOSURES: The presence and content of ED-based febrile infant CPGs assessed by electronic survey.

MEASUREMENTS: Using generalized estimating equations, we evaluated the association between CPG recommendations and rates of urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, hospitalization, and ceftriaxone use at ED discharge in 2 age groups: ≤28 days and 29 to 56 days. We also assessed CPG impact on healthcare costs.

RESULTS: We included 9377 ED visits; 21 of 33 EDs (63.6%) had a CPG. For neonates ≤28 days, CPG recommendations did not vary and were not associated with differences in testing, hospitalization, or costs. Among infants 29 to 56 days, CPG recommendations for CSF testing and ceftriaxone use varied. CSF testing occurred less often at EDs with CPGs recommending limited testing compared to hospitals without CPGs (adjusted odds ratio: 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3-0.8). Ceftriaxone use at ED discharge varied significantly based on CPG recommendations. Costs were higher for admitted and discharged infants 29 to 56 days old at hospitals with CPGs.

CONCLUSIONS: CPG recommendations for febrile infants 29 to 56 days old vary across institutions for CSF testing and ceftriaxone use, correlating with observed practice variation. CPGs were not associated with lower healthcare costs.

DOI

10.1002/jhm.2329

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

25684689

Title

Association Between Procalcitonin and Antibiotics in Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

384-391

Date Published

2022 Apr 01

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To determine whether empirical antibiotic initiation and selection for children with pneumonia was associated with procalcitonin (PCT) levels when results were blinded to clinicians.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We enrolled children &lt;18 years with radiographically confirmed pneumonia at 2 children's hospitals from 2014 to 2019. Blood for PCT was collected at enrollment (blinded to clinicians). We modeled associations between PCT and (1) antibiotic initiation and (2) antibiotic selection (narrow versus broad-spectrum) using multivariable logistic regression models. To quantify potential stewardship opportunities, we calculated proportions of noncritically ill children receiving antibiotics who also had a low likelihood of bacterial etiology (PCT &lt;0.25 ng/mL) and those receiving broad-spectrum therapy, regardless of PCT level.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We enrolled 488 children (median PCT, 0.37 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 0.11-2.38); 85 (17%) received no antibiotics (median PCT, 0.32; IQR, 0.09-1.33). Among the 403 children receiving antibiotics, 95 (24%) received narrow-spectrum therapy (median PCT, 0.24; IQR, 0.08-2.52) and 308 (76%) received broad-spectrum (median PCT, 0.46; IQR, 0.12-2.83). In adjusted analyses, PCT values were not associated with antibiotic initiation (odds ratio [OR], 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97%-1.06%) or empirical antibiotic selection (OR 1.07; 95% CI, 0.97%-1.17%). Of those with noncritical illness, 246 (69%) were identified as potential targets for antibiotic stewardship interventions.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Neither antibiotic initiation nor empirical antibiotic selection were associated with PCT values. Whereas other factors may inform antibiotic treatment decisions, the observed discordance between objective likelihood of bacterial etiology and antibiotic use suggests important opportunities for stewardship.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006510

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

35362055

Title

Short- vs Standard-Course Outpatient Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: The SCOUT-CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 18

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is usually treated with 10 days of antibiotics. Shorter courses may be effective with fewer adverse effects and decreased potential for antibiotic resistance.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare a short (5-day) vs standard (10-day) antibiotic treatment strategy for CAP in young children.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in outpatient clinic, urgent care, or emergency settings in 8 US cities. A total of 380 healthy children aged 6 to 71 months with nonsevere CAP demonstrating early clinical improvement were enrolled from December 2, 2016, to December 16, 2019. Data were analyzed from January to September 2020.</p>

<p><strong>Intervention: </strong>On day 6 of their originally prescribed therapy, participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 5 days of matching placebo or 5 additional days of the same antibiotic.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary end point was the end-of-treatment response adjusted for duration of antibiotic risk (RADAR), a composite end point that ranks each child's clinical response, resolution of symptoms, and antibiotic-associated adverse effects in an ordinal desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR). Within each DOOR rank, participants were further ranked by the number of antibiotic days, assuming that shorter antibiotic durations were more desirable. Using RADAR, the probability of a more desirable outcome was estimated for the short- vs standard-course strategy. In a subset of children, throat swabs were collected between study days 19 and 25 to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in oropharyngeal flora.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 380 children (189 randomized to short course and 191 randomized to standard course) made up the study population. The mean (SD) age was 35.7 (17.2) months, and 194 participants (51%) were male. Of the included children, 8 were Asian, 99 were Black or African American, 234 were White, 32 were multiracial, and 7 were of unknown or unreported race; 33 were Hispanic or Latino, 344 were not Hispanic or Latino, and 3 were of unknown or unreported ethnicity. There were no differences between strategies in the DOOR or its individual components. Fewer than 10% of children in either strategy had an inadequate clinical response. The short-course strategy had a 69% (95% CI, 63-75) probability of a more desirable RADAR outcome compared with the standard-course strategy. A total of 171 children were included in the resistome analysis. The median (range) number of antibiotic resistance genes per prokaryotic cell (RGPC) was significantly lower in the short-course strategy compared with the standard-course strategy for total RGPC (1.17 [0.35-2.43] vs 1.33 [0.46-11.08]; P = .01) and β-lactamase RGPC (0.55 [0.18-1.24] vs 0.60 [0.21-2.45]; P = .03).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this study, among children responding to initial treatment for outpatient CAP, a 5-day antibiotic strategy was superior to a 10-day strategy. The shortened approach resulted in similar clinical response and antibiotic-associated adverse effects, while reducing antibiotic exposure and resistance.</p>

<p><strong>Trial Registration: </strong>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02891915.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.5547

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

35040920

Title

Factors Associated With COVID-19 Disease Severity in US Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

603-610

Date Published

2021 10

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Little is known about the clinical factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in children and adolescents.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study across 45 US children's hospitals between April 2020 to September 2020 of pediatric patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19. We assessed factors associated with hospitalization and factors associated with clinical severity (eg, admission to inpatient floor, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], admission to ICU with mechanical ventilation, shock, death) among those hospitalized.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 19,976 COVID-19 encounters, 15,913 (79.7%) patients were discharged from the emergency department (ED) and 4063 (20.3%) were hospitalized. The clinical severity distribution among those hospitalized was moderate (3222, 79.3%), severe (431, 11.3%), and very severe (380, 9.4%). Factors associated with hospitalization vs discharge from the ED included private payor insurance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR],1.16; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) (aOR, 10.4; 95% CI, 8.9-13.3), asthma (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6), cardiovascular disease, (aOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 4.3- 5.8), immunocompromised condition (aOR, 5.9; 95% CI, 5.0-6.7), pulmonary disease (aOR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.4-8.2), and neurologic disease (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.7-5.8). Among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19, greater disease severity was associated with Black or other non-White race; age greater than 4 years; and obesity/type 2 DM, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and pulmonary conditions.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Among children and adolescents presenting to US children's hospital EDs with COVID-19, 20% were hospitalized; of these, 21% received care in the ICU. Older children and adolescents had a lower risk for hospitalization but more severe illness when hospitalized. There were differences in disease severity by race and ethnicity and the presence of selected comorbidities. These factors should be taken into consideration when prioritizing mitigation and vaccination strategies.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3689

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

34613896

Title

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Testing and Treatment Among Children With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

760-763

Date Published

2021 Jul

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To describe testing and treatment practices for () among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Pediatric Health Information Systems database. We included children 3 months to 18 years old hospitalized with CAP between 2012 and 2018 and excluded children who were transferred from another hospital and those with complex chronic conditions. We examined the proportion of patients receiving testing and macrolide therapy at the hospital level and trends in testing and macrolide prescription over time. At the patient level, we examined differences in demographics, illness severity (eg, blood gas, chest tube placement), and outcomes (eg, ICU admission, length of stay, readmission) among patients with and without testing.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 103 977 children hospitalized with CAP, 17.3% underwent testing and 31.1% received macrolides. We found no correlation between testing and macrolide treatment at the hospital level ( = 0.05; = .11). Patients tested for were more likely to have blood gas analysis (15.8% vs 12.8%; &lt; .1), chest tube placement (1.4% vs 0.8%; &lt; .1), and ICU admission (3.1% vs 1.4%; &lt; .1). testing increased (from 15.8% to 18.6%; &lt; .001), and macrolide prescription decreased (from 40.9% to 20.6%; &lt; .001) between 2012 and 2018.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Nearly one-third of hospitalized children with CAP received macrolide antibiotics, although macrolide prescription decreased over time. Clinicians were more likely to perform testing in children with severe illness, and testing and macrolide treatment were not correlated at the hospital level.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-005215

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

34583319

Title

Trends in Length of Stay and Readmissions in Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 May 04

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Patient complexity at US children's hospitals is increasing. Hospitals experience concurrent pressure to reduce length of stay (LOS) and readmissions, yet little is known about how these common measures of resource use and quality have changed over time. Our aim was to examine temporal trends in medical complexity, hospital LOS, and readmissions across a sample of US children's hospitals.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients from 42 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System from 2013 to 2017. After excluding deaths, healthy newborns, obstetric care, and low volume service lines, we analyzed trends in medical complexity, LOS, and 14-day all-cause readmissions using generalized linear mixed effects models, adjusting for changes in patient factors and case-mix.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Between 2013 and 2017, a total of 3 355 815 discharges were included. Over time, the mean case-mix index and the proportion of hospitalized patients with complex chronic conditions or receiving intensive care increased ( &lt; .001 for all). In adjusted analyses, mean LOS declined 3% (61.1 hours versus 59.3 hours from 2013 to 2017, &lt; .001), whereas 14-day readmissions were unchanged (7.0% vs 6.9%; = .03). Reductions in adjusted LOS were noted in both medical and surgical service lines (3.6% and 2.0% decline, respectively; &lt; .001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Across US children's hospitals, adjusted LOS declined whereas readmissions remained stable, suggesting that children's hospitals are providing more efficient care for an increasingly complex patient population.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-004044

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

33947746

Title

Short- Versus Prolonged-Duration Antibiotics for Outpatient Pneumonia in Children.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 18

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To identify practice patterns in the duration of prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of ambulatory children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to compare the frequency of adverse clinical outcomes between children prescribed short- versus prolonged-duration antibiotics.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study from 2010-2016 using the IBM Watson MarketScan Medicaid Database, a claims database of publicly-insured patients from 11 states. We included children 1-18 years old with outpatient CAP who filled a prescription for oral antibiotics (N = 121,846 encounters). We used multivariable logistic regression to determine associations beween the duration of prescribed antibiotics (5-9 days vs 10-14 days) and subsequent hospitalizations, new antibiotic prescriptions, and acute care visits. Outcomes were measured during the 14 days following the end of the dispensed antibiotic course.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The most commonly prescribed duration of antibiotics was 10 days (82.8% of prescriptions), and 10.5% of patients received short-duration therapy. During the follow-up period, 0.2% of patients were hospitalized, 6.2% filled a new antibiotic prescription, and 5.1% had an acute care visit. Compared with the prolonged-duration group, the adjusted odds ratios for hospitalization, new antibiotic prescriptions, and acute care visits in the short-duration group were 1.16 (95% CI: 0.80-1.66), 0.93 (95% CI: 0.85-1.01), and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98-1.15), respectively.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Most children treated for CAP as outpatients are prescribed at least 10 days of antibiotic therapy. Among pediatric outpatients with CAP, no significant differences were found in rates of adverse clinical outcomes between patients prescribed short- versus prolonged-duration antibiotics.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2021.03.017

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

33745996

Title

The COVID-19 Pandemic and Changes in Healthcare Utilization for Pediatric Respiratory and Nonrespiratory Illnesses in the United States.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 08

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p>The impact of COVID-19 public health interventions on pediatric illnesses nationwide is unknown. We performed a multicenter, cross-sectional study of encounters at 44 children's hospitals in the United States to assess changes in healthcare utilization during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with substantial reductions in encounters for respiratory diseases; these large reductions were consistent across illness subgroups. Although encounters for nonrespiratory diseases decreased as well, reductions were more modest and varied by age. Encounters for respiratory diseases among adolescents declined to a lesser degree and returned to previous levels faster compared with those of younger children. Further study is needed to determine the contributions of decreased illness and changes in care-seeking behavior to this observed reduction.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3608

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

33734976

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