First name
Paul
Middle name
L
Last name
Aronson

Title

Association of clinical practice guidelines with emergency department management of febrile infants ≤56 days of age.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

358-65

Date Published

06/2015

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Differences among febrile infant institutional clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) may contribute to practice variation and increased healthcare costs.

OBJECTIVE: Determine the association between pediatric emergency department (ED) CPGs and laboratory testing, hospitalization, ceftriaxone use, and costs in febrile infants.

DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study in 2013.

SETTING: Thirty-three hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System.

PATIENTS: Infants aged ≤56 days with a diagnosis of fever.

EXPOSURES: The presence and content of ED-based febrile infant CPGs assessed by electronic survey.

MEASUREMENTS: Using generalized estimating equations, we evaluated the association between CPG recommendations and rates of urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, hospitalization, and ceftriaxone use at ED discharge in 2 age groups: ≤28 days and 29 to 56 days. We also assessed CPG impact on healthcare costs.

RESULTS: We included 9377 ED visits; 21 of 33 EDs (63.6%) had a CPG. For neonates ≤28 days, CPG recommendations did not vary and were not associated with differences in testing, hospitalization, or costs. Among infants 29 to 56 days, CPG recommendations for CSF testing and ceftriaxone use varied. CSF testing occurred less often at EDs with CPGs recommending limited testing compared to hospitals without CPGs (adjusted odds ratio: 0.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.3-0.8). Ceftriaxone use at ED discharge varied significantly based on CPG recommendations. Costs were higher for admitted and discharged infants 29 to 56 days old at hospitals with CPGs.

CONCLUSIONS: CPG recommendations for febrile infants 29 to 56 days old vary across institutions for CSF testing and ceftriaxone use, correlating with observed practice variation. CPGs were not associated with lower healthcare costs.

DOI

10.1002/jhm.2329

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

25684689

Title

Characteristics of Afebrile Infants ≤60 Days of Age With Invasive Bacterial Infections.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

100-105

Date Published

2021 Jan

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of afebrile infants ≤60 days old with invasive bacterial infection (IBI).

METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old with IBI presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of 11 children's hospitals from 2011 to 2016. We classified infants as afebrile if there was absence of a temperature ≥38°C at home, at the referring clinic, or in the ED. Bacteremia and bacterial meningitis were defined as pathogenic bacterial growth from a blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture.

RESULTS: Of 440 infants with IBI, 78 (18%) were afebrile. Among afebrile infants, 62 (79%) had bacteremia without meningitis and 16 (20%) had bacterial meningitis (10 with concomitant bacteremia). Five infants (6%) died, all with bacteremia. The most common pathogens were (35%), (16%), and (16%). Sixty infants (77%) had an abnormal triage vital sign (temperature <36°C, heart rate ≥181 beats per minute, or respiratory rate ≥66 breaths per minute) or a physical examination abnormality (ill appearance, full or depressed fontanelle, increased work of breathing, or signs of focal infection). Forty-three infants (55%) had ≥1 of the following laboratory abnormalities: white blood cell count <5000 or >15 000 cells per μL, absolute band count >1500 cells per μl, or positive urinalysis. Presence of an abnormal vital sign, examination finding, or laboratory test result had a sensitivity of 91% (95% confidence interval 82%-96%) for IBI.

CONCLUSIONS: Most afebrile young infants with an IBI had vital sign, examination, or laboratory abnormalities. Future studies should evaluate the predictive ability of these criteria in afebrile infants undergoing evaluation for IBI.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-002204

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

33318052

Title

Epidemiology and Etiology of Invasive Bacterial Infection in Infants ≤60 Days Old Treated in Emergency Departments.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 May 18

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To help guide empiric treatment of infants ≤60 days old with suspected invasive bacterial infection by describing pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old with invasive bacterial infection (bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis) evaluated in the emergency departments of 11 children's hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Each site's microbiology laboratory database or electronic medical record system was queried to identify infants from whom a bacterial pathogen was isolated from either blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Medical records of these infants were reviewed to confirm the presence of a pathogen and to obtain demographic, clinical, and laboratory data.

RESULTS: Of the 442 infants with invasive bacterial infection, 353 (79.9%) had bacteremia without meningitis, 64 (14.5%) had bacterial meningitis with bacteremia, and 25 (5.7%) had bacterial meningitis without bacteremia. The peak number of cases of invasive bacterial infection occurred in the second week of life; 364 (82.4%) infants were febrile. Group B streptococcus was the most common pathogen identified (36.7%), followed by Escherichia coli (30.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.7%), and Enterococcus spp (6.6%). Overall, 96.8% of pathogens were susceptible to ampicillin plus a third-generation cephalosporin, 96.0% to ampicillin plus gentamicin, and 89.2% to third-generation cephalosporins alone.

CONCLUSIONS: For most infants ≤60 days old evaluated in a pediatric emergency department for suspected invasive bacterial infection, the combination of ampicillin plus either gentamicin or a third-generation cephalosporin is an appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment regimen. Of the pathogens isolated from infants with invasive bacterial infection, 11% were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins alone.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.04.033

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

29784512

Title

Time to Pathogen Detection for Non-ill Versus Ill-Appearing Infants ≤60 Days Old With Bacteremia and Meningitis.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Jun 28

ISSN Number

2154-1663

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the time to pathogen detection in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for infants ≤60 days old with bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis and to explore whether time to pathogen detection differed for non-ill-appearing and ill-appearing infants.

METHODS: We included infants ≤60 days old with bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis evaluated in the emergency departments of 10 children's hospitals between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2016. The microbiology laboratories at each site were queried to identify infants in whom a bacterial pathogen was isolated from blood and/or CSF. Medical records were then reviewed to confirm the presence of a pathogen and to extract demographic characteristics, clinical appearance, and the time to pathogen detection.

RESULTS: Among 360 infants with bacteremia, 316 (87.8%) pathogens were detected within 24 hours and 343 (95.3%) within 36 hours. A lower proportion of non-ill-appearing infants with bacteremia had a pathogen detected on blood culture within 24 hours compared with ill-appearing infants (85.0% vs 92.9%, respectively; = .03). Among 62 infants with bacterial meningitis, 55 (88.7%) pathogens were detected within 24 hours and 59 (95.2%) were detected within 36 hours, with no difference based on ill appearance.

CONCLUSIONS: Among infants ≤60 days old with bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis, pathogens were commonly identified from blood or CSF within 24 and 36 hours. However, clinicians must weigh the potential for missed bacteremia in non-ill-appearing infants discharged within 24 hours against the overall low prevalence of infection.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2018-0002

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

29954839

Title

Risk Stratification of Febrile Infants ≤60 Days Old Without Routine Lumbar Puncture.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Nov 13

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

: media-1vid110.1542/5840460609001PEDS-VA_2018-1879 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Rochester and modified Philadelphia criteria for the risk stratification of febrile infants with invasive bacterial infection (IBI) who do not appear ill without routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing.

METHODS: We performed a case-control study of febrile infants ≤60 days old presenting to 1 of 9 emergency departments from 2011 to 2016. For each infant with IBI (defined as a blood [bacteremia] and/or CSF [bacterial meningitis] culture with growth of a pathogen), controls without IBI were matched by site and date of visit. Infants were excluded if they appeared ill or had a complex chronic condition or if data for any component of the Rochester or modified Philadelphia criteria were missing.

RESULTS: Overall, 135 infants with IBI (118 [87.4%] with bacteremia without meningitis and 17 [12.6%] with bacterial meningitis) and 249 controls were included. The sensitivity of the modified Philadelphia criteria was higher than that of the Rochester criteria (91.9% vs 81.5%; = .01), but the specificity was lower (34.5% vs 59.8%; < .001). Among 67 infants >28 days old with IBI, the sensitivity of both criteria was 83.6%; none of the 11 low-risk infants had bacterial meningitis. Of 68 infants ≤28 days old with IBI, 14 (20.6%) were low risk per the Rochester criteria, and 2 had meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS: The modified Philadelphia criteria had high sensitivity for IBI without routine CSF testing, and all infants >28 days old with bacterial meningitis were classified as high risk. Because some infants with bacteremia were classified as low risk, infants discharged from the emergency department without CSF testing require close follow-up.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-1879

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

30425130

Title

Association of Herpes Simplex Virus Testing with Hospital Length of Stay for Infants ≤60 Days of Age Undergoing Evaluation for Meningitis.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

E1-E4

Date Published

2019 May 12

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

Although neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes significant morbidity, utilization of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test remains variable. Our objective was to examine the association of CSF HSV PCR testing with length of stay (LOS) in a 20-center retrospective cohort of hospitalized infants aged ≤60 days undergoing evaluation for meningitis after adjustment for patient-level factors and clustering by center. Of 20,496 eligible infants, 7,399 (36.1%) had a CSF HSV PCR test performed, and 46 (0.6% of those tested) had a positive test. Infants who had a CSF HSV PCR test performed had a 23% longer hospital LOS (incident rate ratio 1.23; 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Targeted CSF HSV PCR testing may mitigate the impact on LOS for low-risk infants.

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3202

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

31112493

Title

A Prediction Model to Identify Febrile Infants ≤60 Days at Low Risk of Invasive Bacterial Infection.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Jun 05

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To derive and internally validate a prediction model for the identification of febrile infants ≤60 days old at low probability of invasive bacterial infection (IBI).

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of febrile infants ≤60 days old who presented to the emergency departments of 11 hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Infants with IBI, defined by growth of a pathogen in blood (bacteremia) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (bacterial meningitis), were matched by hospital and date of visit to 2 control patients without IBI. Ill-appearing infants and those with complex chronic conditions were excluded. Predictors of IBI were identified with multiple logistic regression and internally validated with 10-fold cross-validation, and an IBI score was calculated.

RESULTS: We included 181 infants with IBI (155 [85.6%] with bacteremia without meningitis and 26 [14.4%] with bacterial meningitis) and 362 control patients. Twenty-three infants with IBI (12.7%) and 138 control patients (38.1%) had fever by history only. Four predictors of IBI were identified (area under the curve 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.86]) and incorporated into an IBI score: age <21 days (1 point), highest temperature recorded in the emergency department 38.0-38.4°C (2 points) or ≥38.5°C (4 points), absolute neutrophil count ≥5185 cells per μL (2 points), and abnormal urinalysis results (3 points). The sensitivity and specificity of a score ≥2 were 98.8% (95% CI: 95.7%-99.9%) and 31.3% (95% CI: 26.3%-36.6%), respectively. All 26 infants with meningitis had scores ≥2.

CONCLUSIONS: Infants ≤60 days old with fever by history only, a normal urinalysis result, and an absolute neutrophil count <5185 cells per μL have a low probability of IBI.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2018-3604

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31167938

Title

Febrile Infants ≤60 Days Old With Positive Urinalysis Results and Invasive Bacterial Infections.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 25

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of febrile infants ≤60 days old with positive urinalysis results and invasive bacterial infections (IBI).

METHODS: We performed a planned secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study of febrile infants ≤60 days old with IBI who presented to 11 emergency departments from July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2016. For this subanalysis, we included infants with IBI and positive urinalysis results. We analyzed the sensitivity of high-risk past medical history (PMH) (prematurity, chronic medical condition, or recent antimicrobial receipt), ill appearance, and/or abnormal white blood cell (WBC) count (<5000 or >15 000 cells/μL) for identification of IBI.

RESULTS: Of 148 febrile infants with positive urinalysis results and IBI, 134 (90.5%) had bacteremia without meningitis and 14 (9.5%) had bacterial meningitis (11 with concomitant bacteremia). Thirty-five infants (23.6%) with positive urinalysis results and IBI did not have urinary tract infections. The presence of high-risk PMH, ill appearance, and/or abnormal WBC count had a sensitivity of 53.4% (95% confidence interval: 45.0-61.6) for identification of IBI. Of the 14 infants with positive urinalysis results and concomitant bacterial meningitis, 7 were 29 to 60 days old. Six of these 7 infants were ill-appearing or had an abnormal WBC count. The other infant had bacteremia with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis after antimicrobial pretreatment and was treated for meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity of high-risk PMH, ill appearance, and/or abnormal WBC count is suboptimal for identifying febrile infants with positive urinalysis results at low risk for IBI. Most infants with positive urinalysis results and bacterial meningitis are ≤28 days old, ill-appearing, or have an abnormal WBC count.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-000638

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

33239319

Title

Invasive Bacterial Infections in Afebrile Infants Diagnosed With Acute Otitis Media.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the prevalence of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs) and adverse events in afebrile infants with acute otitis media (AOM).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a 33-site cross-sectional study of afebrile infants ≤90 days of age with AOM seen in emergency departments from 2007 to 2017. Eligible infants were identified using emergency department diagnosis codes and confirmed by chart review. IBIs (bacteremia and meningitis) were determined by the growth of pathogenic bacteria in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. Adverse events were defined as substantial complications resulting from or potentially associated with AOM. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to identify factors associated with IBI diagnostic testing, controlling for site-level clustering effect.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 5270 infants screened, 1637 met study criteria. None of the 278 (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-1.4%) infants with blood cultures had bacteremia; 0 of 102 (0%; 95% CI: 0%-3.6%) with CSF cultures had bacterial meningitis; 2 of 645 (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.1%-1.1%) infants with 30-day follow-up had adverse events, including lymphadenitis (1) and culture-negative sepsis (1). Diagnostic testing for IBI varied across sites and by age; overall, 278 (17.0%) had blood cultures, and 102 (6.2%) had CSF cultures obtained. Compared with infants 0 to 28 days old, older infants were less likely to have blood cultures ( &lt; .001) or CSF cultures ( &lt; .001) obtained.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Afebrile infants with clinician-diagnosed AOM have a low prevalence of IBIs and adverse events; therefore, outpatient management without diagnostic testing may be reasonable.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-1571

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

33288730

Title

Predictors of Invasive Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Young Infants.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 26

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To identify independent predictors of and derive a risk score for invasive herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this 23-center nested case-control study, we matched 149 infants with HSV to 1340 controls; all were ≤60 days old and had cerebrospinal fluid obtained within 24 hours of presentation or had HSV detected. The primary and secondary outcomes were invasive (disseminated or central nervous system) or any HSV infection, respectively.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of all infants included , 90 (60.4%) had invasive and 59 (39.6%) had skin, eyes, and mouth disease. Predictors independently associated with invasive HSV included younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.4-24.5] &lt;14 and 6.4 [95% CI: 2.3 to 17.8] 14-28 days, respectively, compared with &gt;28 days), prematurity (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.1), seizure at home (aOR: 6.1, 95% CI: 2.3 to 16.4), ill appearance (aOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.0 to 8.4), abnormal triage temperature (aOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6 to 5.3), vesicular rash (aOR: 54.8, (95% CI: 16.6 to 180.9), thrombocytopenia (aOR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.6 to 12.4), and cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis (aOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.0). These variables were transformed to derive the HSV risk score (point range 0-17). Infants with invasive HSV had a higher median score (6, interquartile range: 4-8) than those without invasive HSV (3, interquartile range: 1.5-4), with an area under the curve for invasive HSV disease of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80-0.91). When using a cut-point of ≥3, the HSV risk score had a sensitivity of 95.6% (95% CI: 84.9% to 99.5%), specificity of 40.1% (95% CI: 36.8% to 43.6%), and positive likelihood ratio 1.60 (95% CI: 1.5 to 1.7) and negative likelihood ratio 0.11 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.43).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A novel HSV risk score identified infants at extremely low risk for invasive HSV who may not require routine testing or empirical treatment.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-050052

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

34446535

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.